7. Scavenging Ruthenium Catalysts
A metal scavenging study using SiliaBond® Metal Scavengers products was conducted on Grubbs, Hoveyda-Grubbs, TPAP and RuCl3 catalysts.
Various parameters were studied for their influence on the scavengers' robustness as well as to establish the best conditions to bring the level of metal down to an acceptable level for the pharmaceutical industry (i.e.: solvent, number of equivalents, temperature, and reaction time).
SiliaMetS® DMT (Si-DMT) is the silica bound equivalent of 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ru under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts.
TMT has been reported to efficiently remove palladium and heavy metals by precipitation. Unfortunately, its solubility in organic solvents causes problem. SiliaMetS DMT solves this issue and almost all solvents can now be used.
SiliaMetS® Thiol (Si-Thiol) is a robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Pb under a wide range of conditions. It has been used in pharmaceutical processes up to the pilot plant scale. It is our most versatile metal scavenger and is the preferred metal scavenger for Pd(II), Cu, Ag, and Hg.
SiliaMetS® Diamine (Si-DIA) is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.
SiliaMetS® Triamine (SiliaMetS WAX-3, Si-TRI) is effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.