1.Typical Experimental Conditions & Calculation
Step 1: Screening
To find out which SiliaBond® Metal Scavenger will better suit your need, we recommend performing some screening (on small scale) using the SiliaBond Metal Scavenger Kit (Product # K30730B) to quickly determine which scavenger presents the highest efficiency and make experiment optimization from there.
Step 2: Optimization
If, upon completion of the screening procedure, the scavenging is not completed and you are not satisfied with the scavenging efficiency or you wish to reduce the number of equivalents and the reaction time, the following steps should be undertaken:
- Increase the temperature of the scavenging reaction
- Modify the number of molar equivalents of the SiliaBond Metal Scavenger Change the reaction time
- Try a different and/or a mixture of SiliaBond Metal Scavengers
These parameters can be changed one at a time or simultaneously to improve the metal removal efficiency. It is important to underline that these scavengers are stable and work in any solvent.
SiliaMetS® Thiol (Si-Thiol) is a robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Pb under a wide range of conditions. It has been used in pharmaceutical processes up to the pilot plant scale. It is our most versatile metal scavenger and is the preferred metal scavenger for Pd(II), Cu, Ag, and Hg.
SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.
SiliaMetS® DMT (Si-DMT) is the silica bound equivalent of 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ru under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts.
TMT has been reported to efficiently remove palladium and heavy metals by precipitation. Unfortunately, its solubility in organic solvents causes problem. SiliaMetS DMT solves this issue and almost all solvents can now be used.
SiliaMetS® Imidazole (Si-IMI) is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, and Rh under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for iron catalysts.
SiliaMetS Imidazole can also be used as an amine base in systems that are generally sensitive to basic conditions compared to other SiliaMetS supported bases.
SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).
SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.