# SiliaMetS® Calculation of SiliaMetS to Use

To get an effective metal removal, the amount of SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger used is very important. You can determine by two different ways how much scavenger will be needed;

• from the residual concentration (more accurate method)
• from the amount of metal catalyst used (when the residual metal concentration is unknown)

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### From residual metal concentration (ppm)

Knowing the palladium (Pd) level in 800 g of material is 500 ppm, (the oxidation state does not affect the calculation).

Data needed:
• Metal molecular weight: Ex. Pd = 106.42 g/mol
• Amount of product to be treated containing the Pd: Ex. 800 g
• Residual concentration of metal: Ex. 500 ppm of Pd
 1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged 2. Calculate the amount of scavenger (SiliaMetS Thiol) to use (1 equivalent)

To scavenge 400 mg of palladium, 3.13 g of SiliaMetS Thiol is needed if ­using only one equivalent. However, it is highly recommend trying a minimum of 4 equivalents at first. In this case, the amount of SiliaMetS Thiol will be 4 times higher (4 x 3.13 g = 12.40 g).
Sometimes, the metal residual concentration is unknown. In such a case, the amount (g) of palladium to be scavenged can be replaced by the amount of metal catalyst used for the ­reaction:

### From amount of metal catalyst used

Data needed:
• Amount of metal catalyst used: Ex. 10 g of Pd(PPh3)4
• Metal catalyst molecular weight: Pd(PPh3)4 = 1155.56 g/mol

1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged

The amount of SiliaMetS Thiol to be used can then be determined as stated above (see point 2. above). In this particular case, one equivalent of SiliaMetS Thiol ­corresponds to 7.20 g.­

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1. ## SiliaMetS® Thiol

SiliaMetS® Thiol (Si-Thiol) is a robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Pb under a wide range of conditions. It has been used in pharmaceutical processes up to the pilot plant scale. It is our most versatile metal scavenger and is the preferred metal scavenger for Pd(II), Cu, Ag, and Hg.

2. ## SiliaMetS® Cysteine

SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

3. ## SiliaMetS® Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

SiliaMetS® DMT (Si-DMT) is the silica bound equivalent of 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ru under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts.

TMT has been reported to efficiently remove palladium and heavy metals by precipitation. Unfortunately, its solubility in organic solvents causes problem. SiliaMetS DMT solves this issue and almost all solvents can now be used.

4. ## SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

5. ## SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

6. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiol

SiliaSep flash thiol cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

7. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

SiliaSep flash TAAcOH cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

8. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

SiliaSep flash TAAcONa cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

9. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

SiliaSep flash DMT cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

10. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

SiliaSep flash cysteine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market .

11. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Thiol

SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

12. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiol

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

13. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of variois metal complexes to single digit ppm.

14. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

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