# SiliaMetS® Calculation of SiliaMetS to Use

To get an effective metal removal, the amount of SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger used is very important. You can determine by two different ways how much scavenger will be needed;

• from the residual concentration (more accurate method)
• from the amount of metal catalyst used (when the residual metal concentration is unknown)

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### From residual metal concentration (ppm)

Knowing the palladium (Pd) level in 800 g of material is 500 ppm, (the oxidation state does not affect the calculation).

Data needed:
• Metal molecular weight: Ex. Pd = 106.42 g/mol
• Amount of product to be treated containing the Pd: Ex. 800 g
• Residual concentration of metal: Ex. 500 ppm of Pd
 1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged 2. Calculate the amount of scavenger (SiliaMetS Thiol) to use (1 equivalent)

To scavenge 400 mg of palladium, 3.13 g of SiliaMetS Thiol is needed if ­using only one equivalent. However, it is highly recommend trying a minimum of 4 equivalents at first. In this case, the amount of SiliaMetS Thiol will be 4 times higher (4 x 3.13 g = 12.40 g).
Sometimes, the metal residual concentration is unknown. In such a case, the amount (g) of palladium to be scavenged can be replaced by the amount of metal catalyst used for the ­reaction:

### From amount of metal catalyst used

Data needed:
• Amount of metal catalyst used: Ex. 10 g of Pd(PPh3)4
• Metal catalyst molecular weight: Pd(PPh3)4 = 1155.56 g/mol

1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged

The amount of SiliaMetS Thiol to be used can then be determined as stated above (see point 2. above). In this particular case, one equivalent of SiliaMetS Thiol ­corresponds to 7.20 g.­

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1. ## SiliaMetS® Thiol

SiliaMetS® Thiol (Si-Thiol) is a robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Pb under a wide range of conditions. It has been used in pharmaceutical processes up to the pilot plant scale. It is our most versatile metal scavenger and is the preferred metal scavenger for Pd(II), Cu, Ag, and Hg.

2. ## SiliaMetS® Thiourea

SiliaMetS® Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.

3. ## SiliaMetS® Cysteine

SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

4. ## SiliaMetS® Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

SiliaMetS® DMT (Si-DMT) is the silica bound equivalent of 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ru under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts.

TMT has been reported to efficiently remove palladium and heavy metals by precipitation. Unfortunately, its solubility in organic solvents causes problem. SiliaMetS DMT solves this issue and almost all solvents can now be used.

5. ## SiliaBond® Amine

SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

6. ## SiliaBond® Amine nec

SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

7. ## SiliaMetS® Diamine

SiliaMetS® Diamine (Si-DIA) is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.

8. ## SiliaMetS® Triamine

SiliaMetS® Triamine (SiliaMetS WAX-3, Si-TRI) is effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.

9. ## SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

10. ## SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

11. ## SiliaMetS® Metal Scavenger Kit

Cysteine - DMT - Imidazole - Triamine - TAAcOH - TAAcONa - Thiol - Thiourea
12. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Amine

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

SiliaSep flash amine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

13. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Triamine

SiliaSep flash triamine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

14. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Diamine

SiliaSep flash diamine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

15. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiol

SiliaSep flash thiol cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

16. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

SiliaSep flash TAAcOH cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

17. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

SiliaSep flash TAAcONa cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

18. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiourea

SiliaSep flash thiourea cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

19. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

SiliaSep flash DMT cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

20. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

SiliaSep flash cysteine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market .

21. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Amine

SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

22. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Thiol

SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

23. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Biotage™ Compatible (BT) Amine

SiliaSep BT flash cartridges are compatible with Biotage i-style compression modules.

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

24. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Büchi™ Compatible (BU) Amine

SiliaSep BU flash cartridges are compatible with Büchi Sepacor flash chromatography instrument.

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

25. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

SiliaPrep Amine is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

26. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

SiliaPrep Amine nec is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

27. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine

SiliaPrep diamine can be used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to be irreversible retention. Can also be employed as metal scavenger and in normal-phase conditions.

28. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine nec

SiliaPrep diamine can be used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to be irreversible retention. Can also be employed as metal scavenger and in normal-phase conditions.

29. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triamine

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

30. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiol

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

31. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiourea

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

32. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcOH

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

33. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of variois metal complexes to single digit ppm.

34. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

35. ## SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine

Standard SiliaPrep 96 Well Plates are available in 2 mL with different bed weight up to 200 mg. Various sorbents are available and are divided into several sections based on sorbent characteristics.
36. ## SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine nec

Standard SiliaPrep 96 Well Plates are available in 2 mL with different bed weight up to 200 mg. Various sorbents are available and are divided into several sections based on sorbent characteristics.

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