# SiliaMetS® Calculation of SiliaMetS to Use

To get an effective metal removal, the amount of SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger used is very important. You can determine by two different ways how much scavenger will be needed;

• from the residual concentration (more accurate method)
• from the amount of metal catalyst used (when the residual metal concentration is unknown)

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### From residual metal concentration (ppm)

Knowing the palladium (Pd) level in 800 g of material is 500 ppm, (the oxidation state does not affect the calculation).

Data needed:
• Metal molecular weight: Ex. Pd = 106.42 g/mol
• Amount of product to be treated containing the Pd: Ex. 800 g
• Residual concentration of metal: Ex. 500 ppm of Pd
 1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged 2. Calculate the amount of scavenger (SiliaMetS Thiol) to use (1 equivalent)

To scavenge 400 mg of palladium, 3.13 g of SiliaMetS Thiol is needed if ­using only one equivalent. However, it is highly recommend trying a minimum of 4 equivalents at first. In this case, the amount of SiliaMetS Thiol will be 4 times higher (4 x 3.13 g = 12.40 g).
Sometimes, the metal residual concentration is unknown. In such a case, the amount (g) of palladium to be scavenged can be replaced by the amount of metal catalyst used for the ­reaction:

### From amount of metal catalyst used

Data needed:
• Amount of metal catalyst used: Ex. 10 g of Pd(PPh3)4
• Metal catalyst molecular weight: Pd(PPh3)4 = 1155.56 g/mol

1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged

The amount of SiliaMetS Thiol to be used can then be determined as stated above (see point 2. above). In this particular case, one equivalent of SiliaMetS Thiol ­corresponds to 7.20 g.­

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1. ## SiliaMetS® Cysteine

SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

2. ## SiliaBond® Amine

SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

3. ## SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

4. ## SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

5. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Amine

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

SiliaSep flash amine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

6. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

SiliaSep flash TAAcOH cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

7. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

SiliaSep flash TAAcONa cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

8. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

SiliaSep flash cysteine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market .

9. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Amine

SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

10. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Biotage™ Compatible (BT) Amine

SiliaSep BT flash cartridges are compatible with Biotage i-style compression modules.

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

11. ## SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Büchi™ Compatible (BU) Amine

SiliaSep BU flash cartridges are compatible with Büchi Sepacor flash chromatography instrument.

Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

12. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

SiliaPrep Amine is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

13. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

SiliaPrep Amine nec is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

14. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcOH

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

15. ## SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of variois metal complexes to single digit ppm.

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