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SiliaMetS® - Metal Scavengers Case Studies

SiliaMetS - A GlaxoSmithKline Case Study1

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A metal scavenging study was performed following the synthesis of a key synthetic intermediate obtained by the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling presented below. Various parameters were investigated like the efficiency of SiliaMetS in different formats, scavenging kinetic, intermediate recevory and purity.

case-study-gsk

Small-Scale Scavenging (Synthesis Scale ~ 5 g)

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Table below shows the most efficient SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger products for the treatment of the reaction mixture after work-up in both bulk and fixed mode bed (pre-packed SPE cartridges).

SiliaMetS Scavenging Efficiency & Intermediate Results
SiliaMetS Batch Reactor Mode (Bulk) Fixed Mode (SPE) Intermediate Recovery
5 eq., 4 h, 22°C 5 eq., 4 h, 40°C 6 mL / 1 g
SiliaMetS Thiol 95 % > 99 % 98 % > 99 %
SiliaMetS Thiourea 83 % 93 % 99 % 98 %
SiliaMetS Cysteine 84 % 91 % 97 % > 99 %

SiliaMetS DMT

97 % > 99 % > 99% 98 %
Initial Pd Concentration: 179 ppm in MTBE 76 ppm in Toluene  

Scavenging Conclusion

Addition of only 5 equivalents of SiliaBond products for 4 hours at the end of the reaction reduces the residual metal concentration to single digit ppm.

Recovery & Purity Conclusion

Palladium was completely removed, while the organic compound was not sequestrated by SiliaMetS products without adding any impurities.

1Org. Proc. Res. & Dev., 2008, 12, p. 896

Larger Scale Scavenging (Synthesis Scale ~ 55 g)

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SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger in pre-packed SiliaSep Flash Cartridge is a great alternative for metal removal for process development scale. These cartridges offer excellent scavenging efficiency as shown by results in the following table and time-saving for the chemist. After the first run, almost all the palladium is capted. After three times, less than 1 ppm remained in solution.

SiliaSep Scavenging Results
Run# Scavenging
1 97 %
2 99 %
3 > 99 %
Initial Pd Concentration: 700 ppm in AcOEt
Experimental Conditions:
Cartridge Size: 120 g of SiliaMetS Thiol
Nb. Equivalent of SiliaMetS Thiol: 25 eq.
Solution Volume: 1 liter
Flow Rate: 40 mL / min
case-study-siliasep

Metal Scavenging in Flow Chemistry (Preliminary Results)

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Flow chemistry is a relatively new technique that is gaining in popularity for large scale manufacturing because of the small investment needed to be able to produce large quantities in a short time. SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger can also be used in flow chemistry to scavenge metal. Crude reaction mixture was purified using a Syrris ASIA® Flow Chemistry System.

SiliaMetS Thiol Scavenging Results in Flow Chemistry
 Flow Rate Solution Volume Contact Time with SiliaMetS Thiol Time Needed to
Treat the Solution
Scavenging Results
1.50 mL/min 100 mL 16 min 1h10 94.0 %
1.00 mL/min 100 mL 24 min 1h40 94.3 %
0.75 mL/min 50 mL 32 min 1h10 94.5 %
0.50 mLmin 50 mL 48 min 1h40 95.0 %
Initial Pd Concentration: 547 ppm in EtOAc Experimental Conditions: Scavenger Used: SiliaMetS Thiol
SiliaMetS Nb. Equivalent: 13.5 eq.
Reactors: 2 x 12 mL Reactors in Series
Total Solution Volume: 100 mL
Purification Scale: 12.5g
Temperature: 22°C

 

Variation of Phosphorous Ligand Nature & Scavenging

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Even for the same metal, a variation in the scavenging efficiency can be observed depending on the nature of the products present inside the solution to be treated. For example, the steric hindrance of the catalyst and the electronic effects of the phosphorous ligands, are factors influencing the removal of the metal. The same suzuki coupling shown on page xx was performed using different phosporous ligands; three monodentate and three bidentate ligands. For comparison purposes, scavenging screening was done by using the same two sets of conditions. No optimization was done to increase SiliaMetS performance. By experience, using longer reaction time or higher temperature will allow for better results.

SiliaMetS Scavenging Results with Monodentate Ligands
SiliaMetS Triphenylphosphine [PPh3]
Triphenylphosphine [PPh3]
Tri(o-tolyl)phosphine [P(otol)3]
Tri(o-tolyl)phosphine [P(otol)3]
Tri-n-butylphosphine [PnBu3]
Tri-n-butylphosphine [PnBu3]
4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 60°C 4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 60°C 4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 60°C
SiliaMetS Thiol 70 % 97 % 87 % 96 % 26 % 85 %
SiliaMetS Thiourea 55 % 86 % 54 % 82 % 18 % 41 %
SiliaMetS Cysteine 69 % 76 % 77 % 90 % 17 % 44 %

SiliaMetS DMT

95 % 97 % 95 % > 99 % 36 % 87 %
Initial Pd Concentration: 27 ppm in EtOAc 84 ppm in EtOAc 90 ppm in EtOAc

 

SiliaMetS Scavenging Results with Bidentate Ligands
SiliaMetS 1,1’-bis (diphenylphosphino) ferrocene [dppf]
dppf
1,3-bis (diphenylphosphino) propane [dppp]
dppp
(+/-) BINAP
binap
4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 60°C 4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 60°C 4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 60°C
SiliaMetS Thiol 50 % 69 % 75 % 90 % 31 % 56 %
SiliaMetS Thiourea 3 % 23 % 40 % 60 % 33 % 21 %
SiliaMetS Cysteine 29 % 36 % 47 % 55 % 19 % 29 %

SiliaMetS DMT

14 % 22 % 95 % 98 % 41 % 64 %
Initial Pd Concentration: 63 ppm in EtOAc 93 ppm in EtOAc 16 ppm in EtOAc

Scavenging Conclusion

In all cases, SiliaMetS DMT and Thiol remain the better scavengers throughout the study, even though there is a variation in the nature of the ligand.

Ruthenium Scavenging with SiliaMetS

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Ruthenium-based catalysts are commonly used in organic synthesis, mainly in olefin metathesis reaction [ROM(P) and RCM]. Grubbs and Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts are certainly the most popular ruthenium-based complexes in that field of applications. Complete ruthenium removal can be tedious using conventional methods.
SiliaMetS allow to reach the maximal tolerated concentration of the residual ruthenium. A ruthenium scavenging study was conducted and various parameters were investigated in order to learn more on their influence on the scavengers’ robustness as well as to establish the best experimental conditions.

Ruthenium Scavenging Results using SiliaMetS
SiliaMetS Grubbs 1st Gen. Grubbs 2nd Gen. Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st Gen. Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd Gen.
Toluene1 DMF2 Toluene1 DMF2 Toluene1 DMF2 Toluene1 DMF2
SiliaMetS Thiol 90 % 96 % - 99 % 97 % 93 % - -
SiliaMetS Thiourea - 98 % - 96 % 97 % 98 % - -
SiliaMetS DMT 95 % 99 %2 > 99 % 99 %2 > 99 %2 98 %2 98 %2 99 %2
SiliaMetS Amine 95 % 97 % 92 % - - - - -
SiliaMetS Diamine 99 % 99 % 91 % 94 % > 99 % 98 % - 90%
SiliaMetS Triamine - 95 % - - 93 % 95 % - 95 %
SiliaMetS TAAcOH 93 % - - - - - - -
SiliaMetS TAAcONa 96 % - 96 % - 98 % - - -
Exp. Conditions: 1 8 eq. of SiliaMetS, 16 h, 80°C; 2 Only 4 eq. of SiliaMetS. Initial concentration: 500 ppm for all ruthenium-based catalysts.
Note: SiliaMetS Cysteine and Imidazole were not screen in this study (not launch at this moment). Only SiliaMetS results higher than 90% are presented in this table.

 

SiliaMetS vs Other Purification Methods

The use of SiliaMetS to remove ruthenium catalyst after ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction is the most effective purification method (over conventional ones). As demonstrated below, the main advantage is no product lost during the purification step.

case-study-other-purification

 

Scavenging Results for Various Purification Methods*
Scavenging Scavenger Filtration over packed bed of ...2 Flash Purification
SiliaMetS DMT1 Act. Carbon Celite Silica Manual SiliaSep Cart.
Ruthenium captation 93 % 73 % 24 % 58 % 70 % 73 %
1 Using 4 eq., 16h, 22°C. 2 Solution passed directly on a packed bed of various adsorbents, then washed with the same quantity of solvent.
*Quantitative yield obtained for each purification method (adjusted in function of the residual concentration of catalyst). No impurity generated in all cases using the different methods (determined by NMR).

 

Tin Scavenging with SiliaMetS

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Organotin compounds are versatile reagents commonly used in organic synthesis. The two main applications are in Stille couplings or in radical reactions. The removal of tin residues can often be an issue due to the well known high toxicity of this metal.
Traditional removal methods for this particular type of impurity are treatment with an aqueous solution of KF, NH4OH or NaOH, or with bases such as DBU. However, the efficiency of these methods can vary and may be inapplicable for particular compounds.
SiliaMetS Cysteine & TAAcONa can be used as an efficient method to remove tin residues from organic mixtures as demonstrated by the exemples below.

case-study-tin-scavenging

Tin Scavenging using SiliaMetS Cysteine (TAAcONa)
Reactions Inital
Concentration
SiliaMetS Cysteine SiliaMetS TAAcONa
4 eq., 4 h, 22°C [2 treatments] 8 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 4 h, 22°C [2 treatments] 8 eq., 4 h, 22°C 4 eq., 16 h, 22°C
Stille coupling #11 3 385 ppm 99 % 64 % 96 % 62 % -
Stille coupling #21 981 ppm 90 % 66 % 66 % 50 % -
Radical Reduction 4 090 ppm 92 % 88 % 90 % 90 % 90 %
1Pd residues were completely removed after only one treatment with SiliaMetS Cysteine.

 

Osmium Scavenging with SiliaMetS

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Osmium products are very useful in organic synthesis. One of the most common product is osmium tetroxide (OsO4), which is a very reliable and powerful reagent for the cis-dihydroxylation of alkenes. However, osmium compounds, in particular OsO4, are highly poisonous, even at low exposure levels, and must be handled with appropriate precautions. Therefore, it is desirable to efficiently remove residual osmium from products of interest.
A scavenging study on three organic reactions involving osmium reactants were performed. The metal scavenging efficiency of SiliaMetS is highlighted in the table on the following page.

case-study-osmium-scavenging

Osmium Scavenging using SiliaMetS
SiliaMetS Dihydroxylation Sharpless Dihydroxylation Lemieux-Johnson Oxidation
4 eq., 4 h, 22°C 8 eq., 4 h, 22°C 8 eq., 16 h, 22°C 8 eq., 4 h, 22°C 8 eq., 16 h, 22°C
SiliaMetS Thiol 87 % > 98 % > 98 % 87 % 92 %
SiliaMetS Cysteine 89 % > 98 % > 98 % 87 % 91 %
SiliaMetS DMT 92 % 97 % > 98 % 87 % 91 %
SiliaMetS Imidazole 87 % > 98 % > 98 % 89 % 91 %
Initial Os Concentration: 132 ppm in EtOAc 25 ppm in EtOAc 21 ppm in EtOAc
Note: > 98 % of scavenging means < 0.5 ppm of osmium.

 

Multiple Metal Scavenging with SiliaMetS

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SiliaMetS can be used to remove multiple metals in the same reaction with excellent efficiency. The Negishi coupling presented below was performed and SiliaMetS was used to remove simultaneously residual zinc, palladium and iron present after the reaction.

negishi-coupling

Multiple Removal Scavenging Results
SiliaMetS Palladium Iron Zinc
SiliaMetS Cysteine 95 % > 99 % 98 %
SiliaMetS DMT 83 % 93 % 99 %
SiliaMetS Imidazole 84 % 91 % 97 %
SiliaMetS TAAcONa 97 % > 99 % > 99 %
Initial Concentration: 188 ppm in THF 110 ppm in THF 6 ppm in THF
Conditions: 4 eq. of SiliaMetS (according to palladium), 4 h, 22°C.

 

Leaching & Stability Studies

Metal Scavengers Calculation

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  1. SiliaMetS thiol metal scavenger - Best scavenger: Ag, Hg, Os, Pd & Ru - Good scavenger: Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh & Sn

    SiliaMetS® Thiol metal scavenger

    SiliaMetS Thiol is our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions.
  2. SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs. 

  3. SiliaMetS Novel Scavenger Kit. Includes the following products: AMPA - DEAM - DOTA - DMT - Guanidine - Thiol

    SiliaMetS® Novel Scavenger Kit (K34530B)

    This metal scavenger kit includes the following products: AMPA - DEAM - DOTA - DMT - Guanidine - Thiol
  4. SiliaMetS® AMPA

    SiliaMetS® AMPA

    SiliaMetS AMPA is an aminomethylphosphonic acid ligand known for its excellent metal-bonding properties. It is particularly efficient to remove Aluminium, Antimony, Nickel, Lanthanides, and also very effective for Cobalt, Iron, Manganese and Zinc scavenging from reaction intermediates or final APIs. 

  5. SiliaMetS Tin Metal Scavenger Kit (K34730B) - Includes the following products: Carbonate - Cysteine - DEAM - DMT - TAAcOH - TAAcONa - Thiourea - Thiol

    SiliaMetS® Tin Metal Scavenger Kit (Carbonate; Cysteine; DEAM; DMT; TAAcOH; TAAcONa; Thiol; Thiourea) (K34730B)

    SiliaMetS® Tin Metal Scavenger Kit: Carbonate; Cysteine; DEAM; DMT; TAAcOH; TAAcONa; Thiol; Thiourea
  6. SiliaMetS Palladium Metal Scavenger Kit - Includes: DMT - Diamine - Thiol - Thiourea - Imidazole - Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Palladium Metal Scavenger Kit (K34630B)

    This kit includes the following products : DMT - Diamine - Thiol - Thiourea - Imidazole - Triamine
  7. SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.

  8. SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

  9. SiliaMetS Dimercaptotriazine (DMT) metal scavenger

    SiliaMetS® Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes (i.e. Pd(dppf)Cl2).
  10. SiliaBond® Amine

    SiliaBond® Amine

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  11. SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  12. SiliaMetS® Diamine

    SiliaMetS® Diamine

    SiliaMetS® Diamine (Si-DIA) is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.

  13. SiliaMetS® Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Triamine (SiliaMetS WAX-3, Si-TRI) is effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.

  14. SiliaMetS® Imidazole

    SiliaMetS® Imidazole

    SiliaMetS® Imidazole (Si-IMI) is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, and Rh under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for iron catalysts.

    SiliaMetS Imidazole can also be used as an amine base in systems that are generally sensitive to basic conditions compared to other SiliaMetS supported bases.

  15. SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

    SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

    SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

  16. SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

  17. SiliaMetS metal scavenger kit (K30730B). Includes the following products: Cysteine, DMT, Imidazole, Triamine, TAAcOH, TAAcONa, Thiol & Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Metal Scavenger Kit (K30730B)

    This metal scavenger kit includes the following products: Cysteine - DMT - Imidazole - Triamine - TAAcOH - TAAcONa - Thiol - Thiourea
  18. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Amine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Amine

    Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

    SiliaSep flash amine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  19. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaSep flash triamine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  20. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaSep flash diamine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  21. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaSep flash thiol cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  22. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaSep flash TAAcOH cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  23. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaSep flash TAAcONa cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  24. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaSep flash thiourea cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  25. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaSep flash DMT cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  26. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

    SiliaSep flash cysteine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market .

  27. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Amine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Amine

    SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

    Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

  28. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Thiol

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Thiol

    SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

  29. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Biotage™ Compatible (BT) Amine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Biotage™ Compatible (BT) Amine

    SiliaSep BT flash cartridges are compatible with Biotage i-style compression modules.

    Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

  30. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

    SiliaPrep Amine is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and in normal phase conditions.

  31. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

    SiliaPrep Amine nec is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

  32. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaPrep Diamine can be used in replacement of SAX for strong anions. It can also be employed as metal scavenger and in normal phase conditions.

  33. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine nec

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine nec

    SiliaPrep diamine can be used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to be irreversible retention. Can also be employed as metal scavenger and in normal-phase conditions.

  34. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  35. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  36. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  37. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  38. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of variois metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  39. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  40. SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine

    SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine


    Standard SiliaPrep 96 Well Plates are available in 2 mL with different bed weight up to 200 mg. Various sorbents are available and are divided into several sections based on sorbent characteristics.
  41. SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine nec

    SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine nec


    Standard SiliaPrep 96 Well Plates are available in 2 mL with different bed weight up to 200 mg. Various sorbents are available and are divided into several sections based on sorbent characteristics.

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