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SiliaMetS® Calculation of SiliaMetS to Use

To get an effective metal removal, the amount of SiliaMetS Metal Scavenger used is very important. You can determine by two different ways how much scavenger will be needed;

  • from the residual concentration (more accurate method)
  • from the amount of metal catalyst used (when the residual metal concentration is unknown)

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From residual metal concentration (ppm)

Knowing the palladium (Pd) level in 800 g of material is 500 ppm, (the oxidation state does not affect the calculation).

    Data needed:
  • Loading of the scavenger (SiliaMetS Thiol): 1.2 mmol/g
  • Metal molecular weight: Ex. Pd = 106.42 g/mol
  • Amount of product to be treated containing the Pd: Ex. 800 g
  • Residual concentration of metal: Ex. 500 ppm of Pd

1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged

metal-scavengers-calculation

2. Calculate the amount of scavenger (SiliaMetS Thiol) to use (1 equivalent)

metal-scavengers-calculation

To scavenge 400 mg of palladium, 3.13 g of SiliaMetS Thiol is needed if ­using only one equivalent. However, it is highly recommend trying a minimum of 4 equivalents at first. In this case, the amount of SiliaMetS Thiol will be 4 times higher (4 x 3.13 g = 12.40 g).
Sometimes, the metal residual concentration is unknown. In such a case, the amount (g) of palladium to be scavenged can be replaced by the amount of metal catalyst used for the ­reaction:

From amount of metal catalyst used

    Data needed:
  • Amount of metal catalyst used: Ex. 10 g of Pd(PPh3)4
  • Metal catalyst molecular weight: Pd(PPh3)4 = 1155.56 g/mol

1. Determine the amount of palladium to be scavenged

metal-scavengers-calculation

The amount of SiliaMetS Thiol to be used can then be determined as stated above (see point 2. above). In this particular case, one equivalent of SiliaMetS Thiol ­corresponds to 7.20 g.­

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  1. SiliaMetS thiol metal scavenger - Best scavenger: Ag, Hg, Os, Pd & Ru - Good scavenger: Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh & Sn

    SiliaMetS® Thiol metal scavenger

    SiliaMetS Thiol is our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions.
  2. SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs. 

  3. SiliaMetS Novel Scavenger Kit. Includes the following products: AMPA - DEAM - DOTA - DMT - Guanidine - Thiol

    SiliaMetS® Novel Scavenger Kit (K34530B)

    This metal scavenger kit includes the following products: AMPA - DEAM - DOTA - DMT - Guanidine - Thiol
  4. SiliaMetS® AMPA

    SiliaMetS® AMPA

    SiliaMetS AMPA is an aminomethylphosphonic acid ligand known for its excellent metal-bonding properties. It is particularly efficient to remove Aluminium, Antimony, Nickel, Lanthanides, and also very effective for Cobalt, Iron, Manganese and Zinc scavenging from reaction intermediates or final APIs. 

  5. SiliaMetS Tin Metal Scavenger Kit (K34730B) - Includes the following products: Carbonate - Cysteine - DEAM - DMT - TAAcOH - TAAcONa - Thiourea - Thiol

    SiliaMetS® Tin Metal Scavenger Kit (Carbonate; Cysteine; DEAM; DMT; TAAcOH; TAAcONa; Thiol; Thiourea) (K34730B)

    SiliaMetS® Tin Metal Scavenger Kit: Carbonate; Cysteine; DEAM; DMT; TAAcOH; TAAcONa; Thiol; Thiourea
  6. SiliaMetS Palladium Metal Scavenger Kit - Includes: DMT - Diamine - Thiol - Thiourea - Imidazole - Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Palladium Metal Scavenger Kit (K34630B)

    This kit includes the following products : DMT - Diamine - Thiol - Thiourea - Imidazole - Triamine
  7. SiliaMetS DOTA

    SiliaMetS DOTA

    SiliaMetS DOTA is a silica-supported tetracarboxylic acid and its various conjugate bases. DOTA molecule is a well-adopted complexing agent. Linked to various metals, so formed-complexes are used as contrast agents in cancer treatments or other medical applications.
  8. SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.

  9. SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

  10. SiliaMetS Dimercaptotriazine (DMT) metal scavenger

    SiliaMetS® Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes (i.e. Pd(dppf)Cl2).
  11. SiliaBond® Amine

    SiliaBond® Amine

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  12. SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  13. SiliaMetS® Diamine

    SiliaMetS® Diamine

    SiliaMetS® Diamine (Si-DIA) is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.

  14. SiliaMetS® Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Triamine (SiliaMetS WAX-3, Si-TRI) is effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.

  15. SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

    SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

    SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

  16. SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

  17. SiliaMetS metal scavenger kit (K30730B). Includes the following products: Cysteine, DMT, Imidazole, Triamine, TAAcOH, TAAcONa, Thiol & Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Metal Scavenger Kit (K30730B)

    This metal scavenger kit includes the following products: Cysteine - DMT - Imidazole - Triamine - TAAcOH - TAAcONa - Thiol - Thiourea
  18. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Amine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Amine

    Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

    SiliaSep flash amine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  19. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaSep flash triamine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  20. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaSep flash diamine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  21. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaSep flash thiol cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  22. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaSep flash TAAcOH cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  23. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaSep flash TAAcONa cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  24. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaSep flash thiourea cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  25. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaSep flash DMT cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market.

  26. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges Cysteine

    SiliaSep flash cysteine cartridges offer a superior alternative to the other cartridges available on the market .

  27. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Amine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Amine

    SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

    Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

  28. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Thiol

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Open Top (OT) Thiol

    SiliaSep OT flash cartridges are compatible with FlashMaster instrument.

  29. SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Biotage™ Compatible (BT) Amine

    SiliaSep™ Flash Cartridges - Biotage™ Compatible (BT) Amine

    SiliaSep BT flash cartridges are compatible with Biotage i-style compression modules.

    Good alternative for normal phase purification of compounds with basic properties, which would normally have to be purified by reversed-phase.

  30. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

    SiliaPrep Amine is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and in normal phase conditions.

  31. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

    SiliaPrep Amine nec is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

  32. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine

    SiliaPrep Diamine can be used in replacement of SAX for strong anions. It can also be employed as metal scavenger and in normal phase conditions.

  33. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine nec

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Diamine nec

    SiliaPrep diamine can be used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to be irreversible retention. Can also be employed as metal scavenger and in normal-phase conditions.

  34. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triamine

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  35. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiol

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  36. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Thiourea

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  37. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcOH

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  38. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges TAAcONa

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of variois metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  39. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaPrep Metal Scavengers will lower the residual metal concentration of various metal complexes to single digit ppm.

  40. SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine

    SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine


    Standard SiliaPrep 96 Well Plates are available in 2 mL with different bed weight up to 200 mg. Various sorbents are available and are divided into several sections based on sorbent characteristics.
  41. SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine nec

    SiliaPrep™ 96 Well Plates Amine nec


    Standard SiliaPrep 96 Well Plates are available in 2 mL with different bed weight up to 200 mg. Various sorbents are available and are divided into several sections based on sorbent characteristics.

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