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entree SiliaCat

Catalysis Definitions and Calculation

SiliaCat Heterogeneous Catalysts are sol-gel silica-supported catalysts that can be used to replace homogeneous catalysts.

Usually, heterogeneous catalysts supported on a silica matrix are immobilized by post-modification of the inorganic support. These supports, however, present a high degree of leaching due to the poor stability of the immobilized phase. With SiliaCat Heterogeneous Catalysts, the ligand is directly cross linked in an organic-inorganic framework. This results a high degree of stability of the catalysts. Compared to homogeneous catalysts, SiliaCat exhibits a good reactivity and selectivity with one of the major advantages being that the catalyst is eliminated from the reaction mixture by a simple filtration. Forget your purification problems with our SiliaCat catalysts family.

The process for using SiliaCat Heterogeneous Catalysts is outlined in the scheme below.

What is SiliaCat Heterogeneous Catalysts

What is a Turnover Number (TON)?

In catalysis, the term turnover number has two meanings: the number of moles of substrate that a mole of catalyst can convert before becoming inactivated and is the amount of substrate converted per the amount of catalyst used.

In theory, the Ideal catalyst would have an infinite turnover number and would never be consumed. In practice, turnover numbers begin at 100 and can go up to a million, more so in some cases.

What is a Turnover Frequency (TOF)?

A catalyst’s turnover frequency number, or turnover number per time unit, characterizes its level of activity. So the TOF is the total number of moles transformed into the desired product by one mole of active site per hour. The larger the TOF, the more active the catalyst.

TOF = TON/hour

How to Calculate the Amount of SiliaCat Needed Based on Mol %?

One mol % (1 mol %) means 0.01 molar equivalent. If 3 mmol of the substrate is used, then 0.03 mmol of SiliaCat catalyst is required. To determine the weight of the catalyst needed, simply divide this value by the loading of the catalyst. For example, SiliaCat DPP-Pd typical loading is 0.2 mmol/g, so 0.15 g is needed.

Solvent Molar Concentration

A 1.2 M solvent concentration means:

1.2 mmol of substrate per mL of solvent
(or 1.2 mol of substrate per L of solvent)

Volume of solvent needed = mmol of substrate used
molar concentration desired

For example, if 3 mmol of the substrate is used, then, 2.5 mL of solvent is necessary to reach a 1.2 M concentration.

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  1. SiliaCat DPP-Pd heterogeneous catalyst

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts DPP-Pd

    The significant costs associated with precious metal catalysts and their undesired tendency to remain in organic products has generated interest for an increase in reactivity and ways to recover and reuse these metals. SiliaCat DPP-Pd is a unique diphenylphosphine palladium (II) heterogeneous catalysts made from a leach-resistant organoceramic matrix.
  2. SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts TEMPO

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts TEMPO

    SiliaCat® TEMPO is a heterogeneous catalyst/reagent made from a proprietary class of organosilica-entrapped radicals suitable for the selective oxidation of delicate substrates into valued carbonyl derivatives.

  3. SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pd0

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pd0

    SiliaCat Pd0 is a new series of patent-protected sol–gel-entrapped Pd nanocatalysts. It is made from highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles (uniformly in the range 4.0–6.0 nm) encapsulated within an organosilica matrix.
  4. SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pt0

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pt0

    SiliaCat Pt0 is made of organosilica physically doped with nanostructured platinum (0), and is both stable and efficient. This catalyst was successfully prepared by a novel and simple sol-gel route.
  5. SiliaCat® complete heterogeneous catalysts kit

    SiliaCat® complete heterogeneous catalysts kit

    Containing : SiliaCat DPP - Pd, Pd0, Pt0 and TEMPO

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