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entree SiliaCat

SiliaCat®- Experimental Procedures and Optimization

Typical experimental procedures can be found for each catalytic reaction. Please note that these procedures are the starting suggestions meant to be starting points. Sometimes, optimization steps need to be undertaken to optimize yields and increase selectivity. Various parameters can be changed, one at a time or simultaneously, to improve results.

Number of mol % of SiliaCat Catalysts

For each new experiment, we suggest using a molar percent of SiliaCat with respect to the substrate. This quantity has to then be optimized in order to obtain a good catalytic activity with the lowest consumption of the SiliaCat. For initial experiments we suggest to use an higher mol % of SiliaCat Catalyst in respect to the substrate and then decrease the quantity if yield and kinetics are already in line with your needs. During development applications work at SiliCycle, we always start using 1 mol % of catalyst.

Solvent

SiliaCat can safely be used in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents commonly used in laboratory and in process work, such as DMF, DMSO, THF, ACN, alcohols, ethers, chlorinated solvents, water, etc. The nature of the solvent does sometimes influence the catalytic efficiency, however. If yield is low or kinetics are too slow, changing solvent or adding a co-solvent should be considered.

Solution Concentration

At low substrate concentration, the activity of the catalyst will be directly proportional to the number of moles of substrate available. If you increase the concentration of the substrate, the activity will increase until the active sites become saturated. So the substrate concentration is a parameter that needs to be optimized to develop your catalytic conditions.

Temperature

A catalyst’s purpose is to enhance the kinetics of a reaction, so we recommend running the experiments at room temperature. In the optimization step, the temperature could be adjusted, if it is needed.

Reaction Time

In the case that the TOF is low, and increasing the temperature to increase the kinetics is not possible, we recommend increasing the contact time with the catalyst to complete the reaction. Also, in this case, increasing of the amount of catalyst is an option.

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  1. SiliaCat DPP-Pd heterogeneous catalyst

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts DPP-Pd

    The significant costs associated with precious metal catalysts and their undesired tendency to remain in organic products has generated interest for an increase in reactivity and ways to recover and reuse these metals. SiliaCat DPP-Pd is a unique diphenylphosphine palladium (II) heterogeneous catalysts made from a leach-resistant organoceramic matrix.
  2. SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts TEMPO

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts TEMPO

    SiliaCat® TEMPO is a heterogeneous catalyst/reagent made from a proprietary class of organosilica-entrapped radicals suitable for the selective oxidation of delicate substrates into valued carbonyl derivatives.

  3. SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pd0

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pd0

    SiliaCat Pd0 is a new series of patent-protected sol–gel-entrapped Pd nanocatalysts. It is made from highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles (uniformly in the range 4.0–6.0 nm) encapsulated within an organosilica matrix.
  4. SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pt0

    SiliaCat® Heterogeneous Catalysts Pt0

    SiliaCat Pt0 is made of organosilica physically doped with nanostructured platinum (0), and is both stable and efficient. This catalyst was successfully prepared by a novel and simple sol-gel route.
  5. SiliaCat® complete heterogeneous catalysts kit

    SiliaCat® complete heterogeneous catalysts kit

    Containing : SiliaCat DPP - Pd, Pd0, Pt0 and TEMPO

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