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Features & Benefits

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Available Sorbents

Active AdsorbentsFor Removal and/or Recovery of :pH Operation
SiliaMetS ThiolPd, Ag, Hg, Os, Ru, Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh, Se & Sn2 to 10
SiliaMetS DMTPd, As, Ir, Ni, Os, Pt, Rh, Ru Se, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sc & Zn
SiliaMetS ImidazoleCd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Li, Mg, Ni, Os, W, Zn, Cr, Pd & Rh
SiliaBond AminePd, Cr, Pt, W, Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Ru, Sc & Se
SiliaMetS Diamine
SiliaMetS Triamine
SiliaFlash Bare SilicaVery vast range of organic impurities, metals, pigments...2 to 9
Activated CarbonsPrecious metal catalysts & colors1 to 13

 

Scale Up

One of the strongest benefits of SiliCycle E-PAK Cartridges is their linearity upon scale-up.
As shown below, in a typical Suzuki-Miyaura coupling for which palladium needed to be removed, each format behaved very similarly in terms of efficiency (scavenging %), kinetics and relative capacity.

Experimental Conditions
E-PAK FormatBead volume (mL)Flow rate (mL/min)Residence Time (min:sec)
5 cm x 1 cm18.81001:53
5 cm x 12 cm18810001:53
5 cm x 25 cm47025001:53
16.5 cm x 25 cm4,7502,60001:50
16.5 cm x 100 cm19,00010,40001:50

Once the best purifications sorbents have been identified in bulk, transferring the conditions from bulk to cartridges can be a very robust strategy for rapid and efficient scale-up.

 

Various Ways of Using E-PAK

Depending on the application and how you prefer to work, E-PAK cartridges can be used in different ways as shown below.

For a single pass usage, we suggest to run at very low flow rate compared to recirculation process, which can be run at higher flow rate.

Single Pass Recirculation Multiple Sequential Passes 2 Cartridges Method

 

Flow & Hydraulic Pressure Drop

Cartridges provide rapid kinetics at flow rates and contact times suitable for single pass operation. The chart below shows typical flow rates and pressure drop performance for Lab, Pilot and Commercial Scale Cartridges.

Cartridge Size
(diameter x height)
Minimum Flow Rate Maximum Flow Rate Pressure Drop ΔP (Psig)
with w/1 cps Fluid
5 x 1 cm (Lab)5 mL/min100 mL/min≤ 7.5 psig
5 x 10 cm (Lab)50 mL/min500 mL/min≤ 5 psig
5 x 25 cm (Lab)125 mL/min1 L/min≤ 5 psig
16.5 x 12.5 cm (Pilot)0.95 L/min2.5 L/min≤ 10 psig
16.5 x 25 cm (Pilot)1.9 L/min5 L/min≤ 10 psig
16.5 x 50 cm (Commercial)3.8 L/min10 L/min≤ 10 psig
16.5 x 100 cm (Commercial)7.6 L/min20 L/min≤ 10 psig

 

Chemical Compatibility

E-PAK cartridges are formed using a proprietary technology and chemically stable materials in common organic solvents.

E-PAK cartridges have been tested and found satisfactory for use with the following commonly used solvents:

  • Methanol
  • Dichloromethane
  • Ethyl acetate
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Toluene
  • N-ethyl-2-pyrolidone

E-PAK cartridges are suitable for operation at pH of 1 to 13 for activated carbon and 2 to 12 for silica-based products.

 

Handling and Safety

Initial solvent wetting of E-PAK cartridges will produce heat; a risk assessment with the use with low vapor pressure solvents is recommended.

The adsorbent matrix in E-PAK cartridges is electrically conductive. E-PAK cartridges filter housings and retrofit kits provide a connection between the adsorbent matrix and the filter cartridge housing. A risk assessment of electrical discharge in explosion proof environments is recommended.

 

Quality and Regulatory

E-PAK cartridges are manufactured under ISO 9001, GMP manufacturing operations in Glasgow, DE (U.S.A.).

Drug Master File registrations are in progress.

 

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