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Synthesis, purification with SiliaMetS, characterization, and photovoltaic applications of donor-acceptor alternating and random copolymers based on a ladder-type nonacyclic structure

SiliaMetS Thiol and SiliaMetS TAAcOH were used in synergy to remove traces of Pd and Sn from a Stille coupling used to prepare semi-conductor polymers.

Palladium scavenging, Tin, Stille coupling, Polymer

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Publication Synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic applications of donor-acceptor alternating and random copolymers based on a ladder-type nonacyclic structure
Abstract A nonacylic building block TPTPT with the alternate thiophene and benzene subunits fastened by four bridging methylene groups was connected with various acceptors including diphenylquinoxaline (QX), thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione (TPD), thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) to afford donor-acceptor (D-A) alternating copolymers - PTPTPTQX, PTPTPTTPD, and PTPTPTTT and random copolymers - PTPTPTQX11, PTPTPTQX12, PTPTPTTPD11, PTPTPTTPD12, PTPTPTTT11, and PTPTPTTT12. The thermal, optical, and electrochemical properties of these copolymers were measured and compared. The random copolymers all have higher glass transition temperature (Tg) than the corresponding alternating copolymers. ONIOM (our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics) calculations suggest that the increase of planarity in the random copolymers arises from the introduction of thiophene units intercalating between donor and acceptor moieties. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated on the basis of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:PC71BM/Ca/Al device configuration. When the acceptor is QX or TPD, the resultant alternating copolymers performed superior than the random counterparts. When the acceptor is TT, the high content of TT seems to be harmful to the device efficiency, which may relate with the strong quinoidal character of the TT unit. Overall, for the TPTPT core structure, in the used acceptors, the alternating-copolymer arrangement appears to be a better construction manner for the purpose of BHJ PSC applications.
Authors Wei-Wei Liang, Yu-Shun Lin, Yu-Ying Lai* and Yen-Ju Cheng*
Organization Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Source Reactive and Functional Polymers, 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2016.04.002
Date 2016
Full publication


SiliaMetS Metal Scavengers

SiliaMetS Metal Scavengers are functionalized silica gels designed to react and bind excess metal complexes.

Silica-based metal scavengers have been proven to be the purification method of choice over all other methods and several companies from various industries use them.
With the silica matrix advantages over polymers (no swelling, more general solvent compatibility, higher mechanical and thermal stabilities, applications easily scalables and products available in different formats (SPE, flash cartridges and bulk), etc.) combined to SiliCycle’ expertise in grafting technology, SiliaMetS are the solution for metal removal without contamination of drug candidates
SiliaMetS are highly selective and offer a cost-effective alternative for metal scavenging.

SiliaMetS Thiol

SiliCycle Metal Scavenger - SiliaMetS Thiol

SiliaMetS Thiol (Si-Thiol) is a robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Pb under a wide range of conditions. It has been used in pharmaceutical processes up to the pilot plant scale. It is our most versatile metal scavenger and is the preferred metal scavenger for Pd(II), Cu, Ag, and Hg.

SiliaMetS Thiourea

SiliCycle Metal Scavenger - SiliaMetS Thiourea

SiliaMetS Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.

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