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 APPLICATION NOTE 

Efficient use of the E-PAK technology for removing iridium

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Catalytic hydrogenation of double bonds is one of the most common and studied reactions in chemistry. Some of the most complex hydrogenations involve the creation of a chiral center from an alkene. In the early 70’s, Crabtree and co-workers developed an iridium based catalyst for the asymmetric hydrogenations of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted alkenes with high enantioselectivity. Since its first report, several iterations of Crabtree’s catalyst have been synthesized with different ligands. This catalyst is now used in various industrial processes and one of the challenges is to be able to remove the iridium after the reaction.

In this Application Note, the scavenging efficiency of activated carbons and of the SiliaMetS portfolio, as well as their use in E-PAK cartridges for the removal of iridium is showcased.

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  1. Laboratory Scale SiliaMetS® Thiol E-PAK® Cartridges for metal purification
  2. Laboratory Scale SiliaMetS® Thiol E-PAK® Cartridges for metal purification
  3. Laboratory Scale SiliaCarb CA Activated Carbon E-PAK® Cartridges for purification
  4. Laboratory Scale SiliaMetS® Triamine E-PAK® Cartridges for metal purification
  5. Laboratory Scale SiliaMetS® Imidazole E-PAK® Cartridges for metal purification
  6. Laboratory Scale SiliaMetS® Diamine E-PAK® Cartridges for metal purification

    E-PAK Cartridges, SiliaMetS Diamine, 5 x 1 cm

    Best scavenger for: Cr, Pd, Pt, W & Zn / Good scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Ru, Sc, Se & V
  7. SiliaMetS Triamine metal scavenger (R48030B)

    SiliaMetS Triamine (R48030B)

    Effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.
  8. SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)

    SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)

    SiliaMetS is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates. Best metal scavenger for: Cr, Pd, Pt, W & Zn. Good scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Ru, Sc, Se & V.
  9. SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) (R51030B)

    SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) Metal Scavenger (R51030B)

    Our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions. Best scavenger for: Ag, Hg, Os, Pd & Ru. Good scavenger for: Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh, Se & Sn.
  10. SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.
  11. SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)

    SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)

    SiliaMetS Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium, and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has also been reported as being an effective catalyst. Best scavenger for: Pd & Ru. Good scavenger for: Ag, Cu, Fe, Os, Rh, Sc & Sn.
  12. SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)

    SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)

    SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes. Best scavenger for: As, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru & Se. Good scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sc & Zn.
  13. SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)

    SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)

    SiliaMetS Imidazole (Si-IMI) is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for iron catalysts. Best scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Li, Mg, Ni, Os, W & Zn. Good scavenger for: Cr, Pd & Rh. It can also be used as an amine base in systems that are generally sensitive to basic conditions compared to other SiliaMetS supported bases.
  14. SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)

    SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)

    SiliaMetS Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.
  15. SiliaMetS AMPA (R85130B)

    SiliaMetS AMPA (R85130B)

    SiliaMetS AMPA is an aminomethylphosphonic acid ligand known for its excellent metal-bonding properties. It's the first AMPA silica-supported on the market and a very powerful tool to scavenge Lanthanides. Best scavenger for: Al, Ce, Gd, La, Ni, Sb & V. Good scavenger for: Co, Cu, Fe, M & Zn.
  16. SiliaMetS DEAM (R54430B)

    SiliaMetS DEAM (R54430B)

    SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs. Best scavenger for: Ag, Fe, Sn, Ti & Zn. Good scavenger for: Se.
  17. SiliaMetS DOTA (R91030B)

    SiliaMetS DOTA (R91030B)

    SiliaMetS DOTA is a silica-supported tetracarboxylic acid and its various conjugate bases. Best scavenger for: As, Ca, Cu, Gd, La, Ni, Se & Zn. Good scavenger for: Co, Fe, Mg, Pd, Pt & Rh.

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