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 APPLICATION NOTE 

Scavenging Potentially Genotoxic Impurities, Benzyl Bromide and Aniline, using SiliaMetS and SiliaBond

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When the creation of Potentially Genotoxic Impurities (PGI) cannot be avoided, purification techniques can be used to remove them from the final products. PGI have a carcinogenic character that induce genetic mutations and / or chromosomal rearrangements. Some PGI are regulated under the guidelines by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). This Application Note investigates the selective scavenging of two such PGI, namely benzyl bromide and aniline, using model reactions.

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Find below the list of SiliCycle's products involved in this Application Note:

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  1. SiliaBond Diol nec (R35030B)

    SiliaBond Diol nec (R35030B)

    SiliaBond Diol may also be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography. Like bare silica, SiliaBond Diol has the ability to form hydrogen bonds and the capacity to separate structural isomers. Since most of its surface is covered with organic functions, the SiliaBond Diol absorbs less water, which leads to a more reproducible activity. It is also the sorbent of choice when working in normal phase in the presence of water.
  2. SiliaBond Tosic Acid nec (SCX) scavenger (R60430B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid nec (SCX) (R60430B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1, widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
  3. SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) scavenger (R60530B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) (R60530B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
  4. SiliaMetS Triamine metal scavenger (R48030B)

    SiliaMetS Triamine (R48030B)

    Effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.
  5. SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)

    SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)

    SiliaMetS is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates. Best metal scavenger for: Cr, Pd, Pt, W & Zn. Good scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Ru, Sc, Se & V.
  6. SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) (R51030B)

    SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) Metal Scavenger (R51030B)

    Our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions. Best scavenger for: Ag, Hg, Os, Pd & Ru. Good scavenger for: Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh, Se & Sn.
  7. SiliaBond Amine (WAX) (R52030B)

    SiliaBond Amine (WAX) (R52030B)

    SiliaBond Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.
  8. SiliaMetS TAAcOH nec (R69030B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcOH nec (R69030B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcOH is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts. Best scavenger for: Ca, Co, Ir, Li, Mg, Ni, Os, Ru & Sc. Good scavenger for: Cr, Cs, Fe, Pd, Rh & Sn.
  9. SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.
  10. SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)

    SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)

    SiliaMetS Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium, and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has also been reported as being an effective catalyst. Best scavenger for: Pd & Ru. Good scavenger for: Ag, Cu, Fe, Os, Rh, Sc & Sn.
  11. SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)

    SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)

    SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes. Best scavenger for: As, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru & Se. Good scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sc & Zn.
  12. SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)

    SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)

    SiliaMetS Imidazole (Si-IMI) is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for iron catalysts. Best scavenger for: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Li, Mg, Ni, Os, W & Zn. Good scavenger for: Cr, Pd & Rh. It can also be used as an amine base in systems that are generally sensitive to basic conditions compared to other SiliaMetS supported bases.
  13. SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)

    SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)

    SiliaMetS Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.
  14. SiliaMetS AMPA (R85130B)

    SiliaMetS AMPA (R85130B)

    SiliaMetS AMPA is an aminomethylphosphonic acid ligand known for its excellent metal-bonding properties. It's the first AMPA silica-supported on the market and a very powerful tool to scavenge Lanthanides. Best scavenger for: Al, Ce, Gd, La, Ni, Sb & V. Good scavenger for: Co, Cu, Fe, M & Zn.
  15. SiliaMetS DEAM (R54430B)

    SiliaMetS DEAM (R54430B)

    SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs. Best scavenger for: Ag, Fe, Sn, Ti & Zn. Good scavenger for: Se.
  16. SiliaMetS DOTA (R91030B)

    SiliaMetS DOTA (R91030B)

    SiliaMetS DOTA is a silica-supported tetracarboxylic acid and its various conjugate bases. Best scavenger for: As, Ca, Cu, Gd, La, Ni, Se & Zn. Good scavenger for: Co, Fe, Mg, Pd, Pt & Rh.

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