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SiliaBond ® Functionalized Silica Gels

SiliCycle is the leader in the development of functionalized silica gels, gathered under the name SiliaBond, for use in organic synthesis. The backbone of all SiliaBond products is SiliCycle SiliaFlash F60 which provides superior performance for all types of applications due to the narrow particle size distribution and high purity. All the products in this section are made of standard flash silica gel, namely 40-63 µm, 60 Å. We are able to provide all functionalized products on any silica of this catalog (SiliaFlash, SiliaSphere & SiliaSphere PC) in any format (SiliaPrep SPE and SiliaSep Flash cartridges, etc.) on a custom basis.

The use of solid supported reagents and scavengers is an excellent way to expedite organic synthesis by simplifying the purification process. Standard purification procedures including chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, and crystallization can be time-consuming and difficult to scale up. In many cases, supported reagents have distinct advantages over their solution-phase counterparts, the biggest one being the ability to do multiple transformations in a single pot, the immobilization of toxic reagents, and increased selectivity. They are suitable for use in batch reactions and in flow through applications.

 

Advantages of Functionalized Silica over Polymers

  • Fast Kinetics: Since the silica is surface functionalized, the rate of reaction is not controlled by the diffusion in and out of the polymer. Most of our scavengers work under an hour.
  • Solvent Independent: Silica neither shrinks nor swells in any solvent and because it is endcapped, it will not dissolve in any solvent. The SiliaBond does not dictate the solvent of your reaction.
  • Easy to Use: Easy to weigh and handle since silica does not carry a static charge and is always free flowing. Its high density makes it suitable for small volume work. It does not require extensive -washing for high recoveries and will not stick to glassware. It is amenable to automation.
  • Mechanically Stable: Works well with overhead stirring and can be used with a bottom coupled spin bar for up to four hours.
  • Thermally Stable: Most SiliaBond can withstand temperatures of over 200°C and are suitable for use in microwave synthesizers.
  • Easily Scalable: Works on the microgram to the multi-ton scale.
  • Flexible Formats: Because it does not swell, silica gel can be packed into a variety of flow through formats such as HPLC columns, flash and SPE cartridges, and 96 well plates.
  • Controlled Loading: Consistent and accurate loading (lot-to-lot).

 

Application domains

The application domains of the SiliaBond are mainly divided in two:

1. They are either for the separation of mixtures in their individual components (chromatography) or

a) SiliaBond Chromatographic Stationary Phases
b) SiliaBond Fluorous Phases
c) SiliaBond Ion Exchangers

2. As tools in organic synthesis.

a) SiliaBond Acids 
b) SiliaBond Bases 
c) SiliaBond Oxidants 
d) SiliaBond Reagents 
e) SiliaBond Scavengers

i. SiliaBond Electrophile Scavengers 
ii. SiliaBond Metal Scavengers 
iii. SiliaBond Nucleophile Scavengers

 

classification of functionalized silica gels

For your convenience, we have combined our most popular scavengers and reagents for the most common applications into SiliaBond Kits so you can be prepared with material in hand for any application.

 

Application Notes

Quality Control on SiliaBond

SiliaBond pH Stability

Brockmann & Schodder Activity Test

Common Organic Reactions

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  1. SiliaBond C18 (17%C) Monomeric nec (R33330B)

    SiliaBond C18 (17%C) Monomeric nec (R33330B)

    This non-endcapped version of the SiliaBond® C18 15.5% BDS, presents a perfect monolayer of dimethyloctadecylsilane and silanol functions. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance is permitting to use a mobile phase with a higher concentration of water and ion pairing conditions for separation of biomolecules.
  2. SiliaBond C8 (11.6%C) Polymeric nec (R31130B)

    SiliaBond C8 (11.6%C) Polymeric nec (R31130B)

    SiliaBond® C8 (or C8) is a reversed-phase matrix with a moderate degree of hydrophobicity that works well for separating a wide range of compounds. It can be used instead of C18 when shorter retention times are desired.
  3. SiliaBond C4 (8%C) Polymeric nec (R32130B)

    SiliaBond C4 (8%C) Polymeric nec (R32130B)

    SiliaBond® C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules.  It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.
  4. SiliaBond C2 (5%C) Polymeric (R32530B)

    SiliaBond C2 (5%C) Polymeric (R32530B)

    SiliaBond C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.
  5. SiliaBond C2 (5%C) Polymeric nec (R32630B)

    SiliaBond C2 (5%C) Polymeric nec (R32630B)

    SiliaBond® C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.
  6. SiliaBond Phenyl (PHE) nec (R34130B)

    SiliaBond Phenyl (PHE) nec (R34130B)

    SiliaBond Phenyl (Si-PHE) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has similar retention than C8 but with different selectivity especially for molecules containing aromatics and fatty acids.
  7. SiliaBond Propyl Chloride (PCL) (R59030B)

    SiliaBond Propyl Chloride (PCL) (R59030B)

    SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
  8. SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol (CGD) (R63030B)

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol (CGD) (R63030B)

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol may be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography.
  9. SiliaBond TBA Chloride (R65530B)

    SiliaBond TBA Chloride (R65530B)

    SiliaBond TBA Chloride (Si-TBACl) may be used in the same way as SiliaBond TMA Chloride. Si-TBACl is more sterically indered, which offers a different selectivity than other anion exchangers.
  10. SiliaBond Urea (R67030B)

    SiliaBond Urea (R67030B)

    SiliaBond Urea (Si-Urea) can be used for cationic surfactants adsorbtion1 and as polar stationary phase for chromatography.
  11. SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcONa nec (R69230B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.
  12. SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)

    SiliaMetS Thiourea (THU) (R69530B)

    SiliaMetS Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.
  13. SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)

    SiliaMetS Cysteine (CYS) (R80530B)

    SiliaMetS Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.
  14. SiliaBond Isocyanate (ISO) (R50030B)

    SiliaBond Isocyanate (ISO) (R50030B)

    Scavenger for Nucleophiles (Covalent Bonding). Molecules removed: Acyl Chlorides, Aldehydes, Anhydrides, Chloroformates, Isocyanates, Ketones & Sulfonyl Chlorides
  15. SiliaBond Glycidoxy (GLY) nec (R36030B)

    SiliaBond Glycidoxy (GLY) nec (R36030B)

    SiliaBond® Glycidoxy (Si-GLY) may be used as a linker for further modification of the surface and for the immobilization of molecules bearing amino, hydroxy, mercapto and thiocarboxylic acid groups.
  16. SiliaBond Pyridine (PYR) (R43030B)

    SiliaBond Pyridine (PYR) (R43030B)

    SiliaBond Pyridine (Si-PYR) can be used as a tertiary amine for acid removal. It can also anchor Cu2+ ions and then be used as a catalyst for hydroquinone oxidation.

  17. SiliaBond Dimethylamine (DMA) (R45030B)

    SiliaBond Dimethylamine (DMA) (R45030B)

    SiliaBond Dimethylamine is a silica bound tertiary amine base that can be used in most applications requiring a tertiary amine, particularly as a HCl sponge. Silica bound ammonium salt by-products are easily separated by filtration. This dimethylamine immobilized on silica gel can be used as a base catalyst in Michael or Knoevenagel reactions. It can also be used as a catalyst for alkane oxidation.
  18. SiliaBond Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2) (R51230B)

    SiliaBond Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2) (R51230B)

    Strong acid widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. The most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine "Catch and Release" purification technique in SPE cartridges.
  19. SiliaBond Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2) (R51430B)

    SiliaBond Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2) (R51430B)

    Strong acid widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. The most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine "Catch and Release" purification technique in SPE cartridges.
  20. SiliaBond Amine (WAX) nec (R52130B)

    SiliaBond Amine (WAX) nec (R52130B)

    SiliaBond Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.
  21. SiliaBond Base Kit (K31630B), includes: Amine ; Carbonate ; Dimethylamine ; Diethylamine ; Morpholine ; Pyridine ; Guanidine

    SiliaBond Base Kit (K31630B)

    Includes: Amine ; Carbonate ; Dimethylamine ; Diethylamine ; Morpholine ; Pyridine ; Guanidine
  22. SiliaBond Acid Kit (K31330B), including: Carboxylic Acid ; Propylsulfonic Acid ; TAAcOH ; Tosic Acid

    SiliaBond Acid Kit (K31330B)

    Includes: Carboxylic Acid ; Propylsulfonic Acid ; TAAcOH ; Tosic Acid
  23. SiliaBond Allyl (R53530B)

    SiliaBond Allyl (R53530B)

    SiliaBond® Allyl (Si-Allyl) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
  24. SiliaBond Bromophenyl (BRP) (R55030B)

    SiliaBond Bromophenyl (BRP) (R55030B)

    SiliaBond® Bromophenyl (Si-BRP) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
  25. SiliaBond Propyl Bromide (PBR) (R55530B)

    SiliaBond Propyl Bromide (PBR) (R55530B)

    SiliaBond® Propyl Bromide (Si-PBR) is a versatile solid support for amines and alcohols. It is more reactive than the chloride towards displacement.
  26. SiliaBond Phenylmethylchloride (PMC) (R56530B)

    SiliaBond Phenylmethylchloride (PMC) (R56530B)

    SiliaBond® Phenylmethylchloride (Si-PMC) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.
  27. SiliaBond Piperazine (R60030B)

    SiliaBond Piperazine (R60030B)

    SiliaBond Piperazine (Si-PPZ) is a useful deprotecting and scavenging agent for Fmoc1 and Bsmoc2 amino protecting groups and as a solid-phase Knoevenagel catalyst. According to the results of a study, Si-PPZ is superior to its polystyrene-based equivalent. SiliaBond Piperazine may also be used to scavenge electrophiles.
  28. SiliaBond Tosic Acid nec (SCX) scavenger (R60430B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid nec (SCX) (R60430B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1, widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
  29. SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) scavenger (R60530B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) (R60530B)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
  30. SiliaBond Carbonate (CO3) (R66030B)

    SiliaBond Carbonate (CO3) (R66030B)

    SiliaBond Carbonate (Si-CO3) is the silica bound equivalent of tetramethyl ammonium carbonate. It can be used as a general base to quench a reaction, to free base amines in their ammonium salt form and to scavenge acids and acidic phenols, including HOBt, which is widely used in amide coupling reactions.
  31. SiliaBond Morpholine (MOR) (R68030B)

    SiliaBond Morpholine (MOR) (R68030B)

    SiliaBond® Morpholine (Si-MOR) is commonly used as an acid sponge. It is used in the same manner as morpholine functionalized polymers.
  32. SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid (WCX) (R70030B)

    SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid (WCX) (R70030B)

    SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid (Si-CAA) can be used as a scavenger for amines or carbonates, and for the quench of alkoxides and organometallic reagents. SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid is primarily used as a weak cation exchanger (WCX) in solid phase extraction (SPE) and in HPLC.
  33. SiliaBond Piperidine (PIP) (R71530B)

    SiliaBond Piperidine (PIP) (R71530B)

    SiliaBond Piperidine (Si-PIP) is a general purpose tertiary amine base to scavenge acids, thereby avoiding salt elimination problems. Also used as a base catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation.
  34. SiliaBond DMAP (R75630B)

    SiliaBond DMAP (R75630B)

    SiliaBond DMAP (Si-DMAP) is the supported equivalent of 4-dimethylaminopyridine commonly used as a nucleophilic catalyst in a wide variety of reactions such as acylation, amidation or acetylation.
  35. SiliaBond Triethylamine (TEA) (R76530B)

    SiliaBond Triethylamine (TEA) (R76530B)

    SiliaBond Triethylamine (SiliaBond WAX-2) is a silica bound tertiary amine base and can be used in most applications requiring a tertiary amine, particularly as a HCl sponge. SiliaBond Triethylamine is also used as weak anion exchanger (WAX) in SPE.
  36. SiliaMetS Triamine metal scavenger (R48030B)

    SiliaMetS Triamine (R48030B)

    Effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.
  37. SiliaBond Amine (WAX) (R52030B)

    SiliaBond Amine (WAX) (R52030B)

    SiliaBond Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.
  38. SiliaMetS TAAcOH nec (R69030B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcOH nec (R69030B)

    SiliaMetS TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).
  39. SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)

    SiliaMetS Imidazole (IMI) (R79230B)

    SiliaMetS Imidazole (Si-IMI) is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pd, and Rh under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for iron catalysts. It can also be used as an amine base in systems that are generally sensitive to basic conditions compared to other SiliaMetS supported bases.
  40. SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)

    SiliaMetS Diamine (R49030B)

    A proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.
  41. SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) (R51030B)

    SiliaMetS Thiol (SH) (R51030B)

    Our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions.
  42. SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)

    SiliaMetS DMT (Dimercaptotriazine) (R79030B)

    SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes (i.e. Pd(dppf)Cl2).
  43. SiliaBond C18 (17%C) Monomeric (R33230B)

    SiliaBond C18 (17%C) Monomeric (R33230B)

    The SiliaBond® C18 16% BDS is the most efficient deactivated C18 reversed-phase. This versatile support is the best choice for your applications in reversed-phase chromatography. This chromatographic phase has been compared with different competitors and presents a better separation for basic compounds.
  44. SiliaBond Oxidant Kit (K30330B), includes: Potassium Permanganate ; TEMPO ; Pyridinium Chlrorochromate ; Pyridinium dichromate

    SiliaBond Oxidant Kit (K30330B)

    Includes: Potassium Permanganate ; TEMPO ; Pyridinium Chlrorochromate ; Pyridinium dichromate
  45. SiliaBond Pyridinium Chlorochromate (PCC) (R24030B)

    SiliaBond Pyridinium Chlorochromate (PCC) (R24030B)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate (Si-PCC) is used for the general oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, selective oxidation of allylic and benzylic alcohols, organometallic oxidation, oxidative transpositions, oxidative cleavages, allylic and benzylic oxidation and oxidative cyclizations.


  46. SiliaBond C8 (11%C) Monomeric (R30830B)
  47. SiliaBond Pyridinium Dichromate (PDC) (R24530B)

    SiliaBond Pyridinium Dichromate (PDC) (R24530B)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate (Si-PDC) may be used as an alternative to Si-PCC in nucleoside and carbohydrate oxidation, particularly for fragile molecules. SiliaBond PDC can also be used in conjunction with tertbutylhydroperoxide for a variety of oxidative transformations.

  48. SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (CYH) (R61530B)

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (CYH) (R61530B)

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (Si-CYH) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has a different selectivity than the alkyl sorbents (C18, C8, C4, ...) and phenyl, and may be used when these fail to provide the desired selectivity.
  49. SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate (R23030B)

    SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate (KMNO4) (R23030B)

    Potassium permanganate (KMNO4) is a strong oxidant that will oxidize methyl groups and alcohols to carboxylic acids. SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate (Si-KMnO4) increases recoveries, facilitates work-up, and expands the scope of the chemistry because it can be used in all organic solvents eliminating solubility issues. With SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate, the manganese salt by-products stays adsorbed onto the silica.
  50. SiliaBond C4 (8%C) Polymeric (R32030B)

    SiliaBond C4 (8%C) Polymeric (R32030B)

    SiliaBond C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules.  It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.

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