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SiliaBond Functionalized Silica Gels

SiliaBond ® Functionalized Silica Gels

SiliCycle is the leader in the development of functionalized silica gels, gathered under the name SiliaBond, for use in organic synthesis. The backbone of all SiliaBond products is SiliCycle SiliaFlash® F60 which provides superior performance for all types of applications due to the narrow particle size distribution and high purity. All the products in this section are made of standard flash silica gel, namely 40-63µm, 60Å. We are able to provide all functionalized products on any silica of this catalog (SiliaFlash, IMPAQSiliaSphere & SiliaSphere PC) in any format (SiliaPrep SPE and SiliaSep Flash cartridges, etc.) on a custom basis.

The use of solid supported reagents and scavengers is an excellent way to expedite organic synthesis by simplifying the purification process. Standard purification procedures including chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, and crystallization can be time-consuming and difficult to scale up. In many cases, supported reagents have distinct advantages over their solution-phase counterparts, the biggest one being the ability to do multiple transformations in a single pot, the immobilization of toxic reagents, and increased selectivity. They are suitable for use in batch reactions and in flow through applications.

 

Advantages of Functionalized Silica over Polymers

  • Fast Kinetics: Since the silica is surface functionalized, the rate of reaction is not controlled by the diffusion in and out of the polymer. Most of our scavengers work under an hour.
  • Solvent Independent: Silica neither shrinks nor swells in any solvent and because it is endcapped, it will not dissolve in any solvent. The SiliaBond does not dictate the solvent of your reaction.
  • Easy to Use: Easy to weigh and handle since silica does not carry a static charge and is always free flowing. Its high density makes it suitable for small volume work. It does not require extensive -washing for high recoveries and will not stick to glassware. It is amenable to automation.
  • Mechanically Stable: Works well with overhead stirring and can be used with a bottom coupled spin bar for up to four hours.
  • Thermally Stable: Most SiliaBond can withstand temperatures of over 200°C and are suitable for use in microwave synthesizers.
  • Easily Scalable: Works on the microgram to the multi-ton scale.
  • Flexible Formats: Because it does not swell, silica gel can be packed into a variety of flow through formats such as HPLC columns, flash and SPE cartridges, and 96 well plates.
  • Controlled Loading: Consistent and accurate loading (lot-to-lot).

 

The application domains of the SiliaBond are mainly divided in two:

1. They are either for the separation of mixtures in their individual components (chromatography) or

a) SiliaBond Chromatographic Stationary Phases
b) SiliaBond Fluorous Phases
c) SiliaBond Ion Exchangers

2. As tools in organic synthesis.

a) SiliaBond Acids 
b) SiliaBond Bases 
c) SiliaBond Oxidants 
d) SiliaBond Reagents 
e) SiliaBond Scavengers

i. SiliaBond Electrophile Scavengers 
ii. SiliaBond Metal Scavengers 
iii. SiliaBond Nucleophile Scavengers

 

classification of functionalized silica gels

For your convenience, we have combined our most popular scavengers and reagents for the most common applications into SiliaBond Kits so you can be prepared with material in hand for any application.

 

Application Notes

Quality Control on SiliaBond

SiliaBond pH Stability

Brockmann & Schodder Activity Test

Common Organic Reactions

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  1. SiliaBond® C18 (23%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (23%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (or C18) is the traditional matrix for reversed-phase chromatography. The high loading provides the highest degree of hydrophobicity commercially available. Considered as the least selective phase since it interacts with a wide range of organic molecules.

  2. SiliaBond® C4

    SiliaBond® C4

    SiliaBond® C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules.  It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.

  3. SiliaBond® C4 nec

    SiliaBond® C4 nec

    SiliaBond® C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules.  It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.

  4. SiliaBond® C2

    SiliaBond® C2

    SiliaBond® C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.

  5. SiliaBond® C2 nec

    SiliaBond® C2 nec

    SiliaBond® C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.

  6. SiliaBond® Diol

    SiliaBond® Diol

    SiliaBond Diol may also be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography. Like bare silica, SiliaBond Diol has the ability to form hydrogen bonds and the capacity to separate structural isomers. Since most of its surface is covered with organic functions, the SiliaBond Diol absorbs less water, which leads to a more reproducible activity. It is also the sorbent of choice when working in normal phase in the presence of water.

  7. SiliaBond® Cyano

    SiliaBond® Cyano

    SiliaBond® Cyano (Si-CN) can be used both in normal and reversed-phase chromatography as its polarity marks the separation between the polar and non-polar phases. SiliaBond Cyano is the least retentive polar sorbent in normal phase chromatography and the least retentive of the non-polar sorbents in reversed-phase chromatography.

  8. SiliaBond® Cyano nec

    SiliaBond® Cyano nec

    SiliaBond® Cyano (Si-CN) can be used both in normal and reversed-phase chromatography as its polarity marks the separation between the polar and non-polar phases. SiliaBond Cyano is the least retentive polar sorbent in normal phase chromatography and the least retentive of the non-polar sorbents in reversed-phase chromatography.

  9. SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2)

    SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2)

    Supported sulfonic acids such as SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SiliaBond SCX-2) are in a class of strong acids widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Their applications are well known and are used in a large number of settings going from drug discovery laboratories up to manufacturing processes. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. Meanwhile, the most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine “Catch and Release” purification technique in SPE cartridges.

  10. SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride

    SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride

    SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride can be used as solid support for further derivatization.


  11. SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) metal scavenger

    SiliaBond® Tosic Acid (SCX)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
  12. SiliaBond® Cyclohexyldiol

    SiliaBond® Cyclohexyldiol

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol may be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography. 

  13. SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride

    SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride

    SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents. It is especially used for the “Catch and Release” purification of weak acids. 


  14. SiliaBond® Carbonate

    SiliaBond® Carbonate

    SiliaBond® Carbonate (Si-CO3) is the silica bound equivalent of tetramethyl ammonium carbonate. It can be used as a general base to quench a reaction, to free base amines in their ammonium salt form and to scavenge acids and acidic phenols, including HOBt, which is widely used in amide coupling reactions.

  15. SiliaBond® TMA Acetate nec

    SiliaBond® TMA Acetate nec

    Strong anion exchangers (SAX) have been widely used in both chromatography and ion exchange SPE to selectively bind acidic drugs and/or analytes. In particular, weakly acidic compounds can be effectively extracted as those types of sorbents retain a permanent positive charge across the pH range. Most commercially available silica-based SAX sorbents are produced with a high selectivity chloride counter ion which reduced retention of acidic drugs when compared with lower selectivity counter ions such as acetate.

  16. SiliaBond® Pentafluorophenyl

    SiliaBond® Pentafluorophenyl

    SiliaBond® Pentafluorophenyl (Si-PFP) is a sorbent primarily used in the separation of molecules bearing fluorine atoms but may also be used in the separation of non-fluorous compounds such as Taxol® and its derivatives. Because of its phenyl ring, Si-PFP has a higher selectivity for aromatics containing molecules compared to the other fluorinated sorbents.

  17. SiliaBond® Carboxylic Acid (WCX)

    SiliaBond® Carboxylic Acid (WCX)

    SiliaBond® Carboxylic Acid (Si-CAA) can be used as a scavenger for amines or carbonates, and for the quench of alkoxides and organometallic reagents. SiliaBond Carboxylic Acid is primarily used as a weak cation exchanger (WCX) in solid phase extraction (SPE) and in HPLC.

  18. SiliaBond® Aluminum Chloride

    SiliaBond® Aluminum Chloride

    SiliaBond® Aluminium Chloride (Si-AlClx) is the silica supported version of the most widely used Lewis acid, aluminium chloride. It is an effective catalyst for Friedel-Crafts alkylations and acylations. It also catalyzes the formation of ethers.

  19. SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

  20. SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.

  21. SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

  22. SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs. 

  23. SiliaMetS DOTA

    SiliaMetS DOTA

    SiliaMetS DOTA is a silica-supported tetracarboxylic acid and its various conjugate bases. DOTA molecule is a well-adopted complexing agent. Linked to various metals, so formed-complexes are used as contrast agents in cancer treatments or other medical applications.
  24. SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate nec

    SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate nec

    Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant that will oxidize methyl groups and alcohols to carboxylic acids. SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate (Si-KMnO4) increases recoveries, facilitates work-up, and expands the scope of the chemistry because it can be used in all organic solvents eliminating solubility issues. With SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate, the manganese salt by-products stays adsorbed onto the silica.

  25. SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate nec (PCC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate nec (PCC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate (Si-PCC) is used for the general oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, selective oxidation of allylic and benzylic alcohols, organometallic oxidation, oxidative transpositions, oxidative cleavages, allylic and benzylic oxidation and oxidative cyclizations.


  26. SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate nec (PDC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate nec (PDC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate (Si-PDC) may be used as an alternative to Si-PCC in nucleoside and carbohydrate oxidation, particularly for fragile molecules. SiliaBond PDC can also be used in conjunction with tertbutylhydroperoxide for a variety of oxidative transformations.

  27. SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2)

    SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2)

    Supported sulfonic acids such as SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SiliaBond SCX-2) are in a class of strong acids widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Their applications are well known and are used in a large number of settings going from drug discovery laboratories up to manufacturing processes. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. Meanwhile, the most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine “Catch and Release” purification technique in SPE cartridges.

  28. SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  29. SiliaBond® Piperazine

    SiliaBond® Piperazine

    SiliaBond® Piperazine (Si-PPZ) is a useful deprotecting and scavenging agent for Fmoc1 and Bsmoc2 amino protecting groups and as a solid-phase Knoevenagel catalyst. According to the results of a study1, Si-PPZ is superior to its polystyrene-based equivalent. SiliaBond Piperazine may also be used to scavenge electrophiles.


  30. SiliaBond® Tosic Acid nec (SCX)

    SiliaBond® Tosic Acid nec (SCX)

    SiliaBond® Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions.Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.


  31. SiliaBond® Tosyl Hydrazine

    SiliaBond® Tosyl Hydrazine

    SiliaBond® Tosyl Hydrazine (Si-TsNHNH2) is an effective scavenger of carbonyl compounds. It has been used to selectively remove aldehydes in the presence of ketones since the scavenging of ketones requires an acid catalyst. Once bound, sulfonyl hydrazones can be utilized in other synthetic transformations.

  32. SiliaBond® TBA Chloride

    SiliaBond® TBA Chloride

    SiliaBond® TBA Chloride (Si-TBACl) may be used in the same way as SiliaBond TMA Chloride. Si-TBACl is more sterically indered, which offers a different selectivity than other anion exchangers.

  33. SiliaBond® TMA Chloride nec (SAX)

    SiliaBond® TMA Chloride nec (SAX)

    SiliaBond® TMA Chloride (SiliaBond SAX, Si-TMACl) is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents.

  34. SiliaBond® TMA Chloride (SAX)

    SiliaBond® TMA Chloride (SAX)

    SiliaBond® TMA Chloride (SiliaBond SAX, Si-TMACl) is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents.

  35. SiliaBond® Piperidine

    SiliaBond® Piperidine

    SiliaBond® Piperidine (Si-PIP) is a general purpose tertiary amine base to scavenge acids, thereby avoiding salt elimination problems. Also used as a base catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation.

  36. SiliaBond Triethylamine ion exchange chromatographic phase

    SiliaBond® Triethylamine

    SiliaBond® Triethylamine (SiliaBond WAX-2) is a silica bound tertiary amine base and can be used in most applications requiring a tertiary amine, particularly as a HCl sponge. Silica bound ammonium salt by-products are easily separated by filtration. This triethylamine immobilized on silica gel can be used for the same applications as SiliaBond Dimethylamine. It is a very common supported tertiary amine.

  37. SiliaBond® Oxidant Kit

    SiliaBond® Oxidant Kit

    Potassium Permanganate - TEMPO - Pyridinium Chlrorochromate - Pyridinium dichromate
  38. SiliaBond® Acid Kit

    SiliaBond® Acid Kit

    Carboxylic Acid - Propylsulfonic Acid - TAAcOH - Tosic Acid
  39. SiliaMetS® Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Triamine

    SiliaMetS® Triamine (SiliaMetS WAX-3, Si-TRI) is effective for scavenging metals such as Pb, Co, Ru and Pd. Our screening studies have shown it to be the preferred scavenger for Pb. It can also be used as a scavenger for acid chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles.

  40. SiliaMetS® Diamine

    SiliaMetS® Diamine

    SiliaMetS® Diamine (Si-DIA) is a proven scavenger for metals and electrophiles. It scavenges acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates, and chloroformates as well as Pb, Ni, and Cd.

  41. SiliaMetS thiol metal scavenger - Best scavenger: Ag, Hg, Os, Pd & Ru - Good scavenger: Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh & Sn

    SiliaMetS® Thiol metal scavenger

    SiliaMetS Thiol is our most versatile and robust metal scavenger for a variety of metals under a wide range of conditions.
  42. SiliaBond® Amine

    SiliaBond® Amine

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  43. SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

    SiliaMetS® TAAcOH

    SiliaMetS® TAAcOH (SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetic Acid) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(0), Ni(0) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its free form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

  44. SiliaMetS Dimercaptotriazine (DMT) metal scavenger

    SiliaMetS® Dimercaptotriazine (DMT)

    SiliaMetS DMT is the silica - bound equivalent of 2,4,6 - trimercaptotriazine (trithiocyanuric acid, TMT). It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals and the preferred metal scavenger for ruthenium catalysts and hindered Pd complexes (i.e. Pd(dppf)Cl2).
  45. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine (WAX)

    SiliaPrep Amine is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and in normal phase conditions.

  46. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Amine nec (WAX)

    SiliaPrep Amine nec is a weak anion exchanger sorbent used in replacement of SAX for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. Can also be employed as a metal scavenger and norman phase conditions.

  47. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Carboxylic Acid (WCX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Carboxylic Acid (WCX)

    SiliaPrep Carboxylic Acid is a weak cation exchanger sorbent (WCX) used to extract strong basic compounds.

  48. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Carboxylic Acid nec (WCX)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Carboxylic Acid nec (WCX)

    SiliaPrep Carboxilic Acid nec is a weak cation exchanger sorbent (WCX) used to extract strong basics compounds.

  49. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Piperazine (SPE-R60030B)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Piperazine (SPE-R60030B)

    SiliaPrep Piperazine is a weak anion exchanger that can be used in replacement of SAX and SAX-2 for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. By using this phase, elution can be done at a lower pH (around pH 8-9) comparatively to the SiliaPrep Amine.

  50. SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triethylamine (WAX-2)

    SiliaPrep™ SPE Cartridges Triethylamine (WAX-2)

    SiliaPrep Triethylamine (WAX-2) is a weak anion exchanger that can be used in replacement of SAX and SAX-2 for strong anions to avoid irreversible retention. This phase presents a slightly lower capacity and a moderate non polar character due to the alkyl chain on the amino function. Moreover, it can be employed as metal scavenger and in normal phase conditions.

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