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SiliaBond Functionalized Silica Gels

SiliaBond ® Functionalized Silica Gels

SiliCycle is the leader in the development of functionalized silica gels, gathered under the name SiliaBond, for use in organic synthesis. The backbone of all SiliaBond products is SiliCycle SiliaFlash® F60 which provides superior performance for all types of applications due to the narrow particle size distribution and high purity. All the products in this section are made of standard flash silica gel, namely 40-63µm, 60Å. We are able to provide all functionalized products on any silica of this catalog (SiliaFlash, IMPAQSiliaSphere & SiliaSphere PC) in any format (SiliaPrep SPE and SiliaSep Flash cartridges, etc.) on a custom basis.

The use of solid supported reagents and scavengers is an excellent way to expedite organic synthesis by simplifying the purification process. Standard purification procedures including chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, and crystallization can be time-consuming and difficult to scale up. In many cases, supported reagents have distinct advantages over their solution-phase counterparts, the biggest one being the ability to do multiple transformations in a single pot, the immobilization of toxic reagents, and increased selectivity. They are suitable for use in batch reactions and in flow through applications.

 

Advantages of Functionalized Silica over Polymers

  • Fast Kinetics: Since the silica is surface functionalized, the rate of reaction is not controlled by the diffusion in and out of the polymer. Most of our scavengers work under an hour.
  • Solvent Independent: Silica neither shrinks nor swells in any solvent and because it is endcapped, it will not dissolve in any solvent. The SiliaBond does not dictate the solvent of your reaction.
  • Easy to Use: Easy to weigh and handle since silica does not carry a static charge and is always free flowing. Its high density makes it suitable for small volume work. It does not require extensive -washing for high recoveries and will not stick to glassware. It is amenable to automation.
  • Mechanically Stable: Works well with overhead stirring and can be used with a bottom coupled spin bar for up to four hours.
  • Thermally Stable: Most SiliaBond can withstand temperatures of over 200°C and are suitable for use in microwave synthesizers.
  • Easily Scalable: Works on the microgram to the multi-ton scale.
  • Flexible Formats: Because it does not swell, silica gel can be packed into a variety of flow through formats such as HPLC columns, flash and SPE cartridges, and 96 well plates.
  • Controlled Loading: Consistent and accurate loading (lot-to-lot).

 

The application domains of the SiliaBond are mainly divided in two:

1. They are either for the separation of mixtures in their individual components (chromatography) or

a) SiliaBond Chromatographic Stationary Phases
b) SiliaBond Fluorous Phases
c) SiliaBond Ion Exchangers

2. As tools in organic synthesis.

a) SiliaBond Acids 
b) SiliaBond Bases 
c) SiliaBond Oxidants 
d) SiliaBond Reagents 
e) SiliaBond Scavengers

i. SiliaBond Electrophile Scavengers 
ii. SiliaBond Metal Scavengers 
iii. SiliaBond Nucleophile Scavengers

 

classification of functionalized silica gels

For your convenience, we have combined our most popular scavengers and reagents for the most common applications into SiliaBond Kits so you can be prepared with material in hand for any application.

 

Application Notes

Quality Control on SiliaBond

SiliaBond pH Stability

Brockmann & Schodder Activity Test

Common Organic Reactions

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  1. SiliaBond® C2

    SiliaBond® C2

    SiliaBond® C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.

  2. SiliaBond® C2 nec

    SiliaBond® C2 nec

    SiliaBond® C2 nec is a non-polar sorbent and presents a moderate hydrophobicity. This phase is used to extract extremely non-polar compounds.

  3. SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride

    SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride

    SiliaBond® Propyl Chloride can be used as solid support for further derivatization.


  4. SiliaBond® Cyclohexyldiol

    SiliaBond® Cyclohexyldiol

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyldiol may be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography. 

  5. SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride

    SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride

    SiliaBond® BTMA Chloride is mainly used as strong anion exchanger (SAX) in ion chromatography and ion exchange SPE. The function bears a positive charge across the whole pH range as well as in organic solvents. It is especially used for the “Catch and Release” purification of weak acids. 


  6. SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa

    SiliaMetS® TAAcONa or (or SiliaMetS Triaminetetraacetate, sodium salt) is a silica bound metal scavenger for Pd(II), Ni(II) and Cu. It is the supported version of EDTA in its sodium salt form. It is an effective scavenger for metals in higher oxidation state, 2+ or higher.

  7. SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea

    SiliaMetS® Thiourea (Si-THU) is a versatile metal scavenger for all forms of palladium and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. It works particularly well in organic solvents. It can also be used to scavenge Ag, Pt, Ru, Rh and Hg. Once complexed with a transition metal, it has been reported as being an effective catalyst.

  8. SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine

    SiliaMetS® Cysteine (Si-Cys) is the silica bound equivalent of the amino acid Cysteine. By attaching the molecule to the backbone via the amino group, the thiol group remains free and accessible for higher metal scavenging efficiency. It is a versatile metal scavenger for a variety of metals including Pd, Sn, Ru, Pt, Cu, Rh, Cd and Sc under a wide range of conditions and the preferred metal scavenger for tin residues.

  9. SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS® DEAM

    SiliaMetS DEAM is a versatile scavenger designed to remove trace metal or boronic acids from reaction intermediates or final APIs. 

  10. SiliaMetS DOTA

    SiliaMetS DOTA

    SiliaMetS DOTA is a silica-supported tetracarboxylic acid and its various conjugate bases. DOTA molecule is a well-adopted complexing agent. Linked to various metals, so formed-complexes are used as contrast agents in cancer treatments or other medical applications.
  11. SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate nec

    SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate nec

    Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant that will oxidize methyl groups and alcohols to carboxylic acids. SiliaBond® Potassium Permanganate (Si-KMnO4) increases recoveries, facilitates work-up, and expands the scope of the chemistry because it can be used in all organic solvents eliminating solubility issues. With SiliaBond Potassium Permanganate, the manganese salt by-products stays adsorbed onto the silica.

  12. SiliaBond® Silver Nitrate  (AgNO3) nec

    SiliaBond® Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) nec

    Chromatography with silver nitrate is a well known and established methodology for the separation of non polar compounds with similar polarities. Generally, with a mixture of unsaturated compounds such as alkenes, lipids, steroids, terpenes, etc, standard separation procedures lack in efficiency. However, by using SiliaBond® Silver Nitrate for your column chromatography along with SiliaPlate Ag for your TLC, you will have the necessary tools to circumvent the problem.

  13. SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate nec (PCC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate nec (PCC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Chlorochromate (Si-PCC) is used for the general oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, selective oxidation of allylic and benzylic alcohols, organometallic oxidation, oxidative transpositions, oxidative cleavages, allylic and benzylic oxidation and oxidative cyclizations.


  14. SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate nec (PDC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate nec (PDC)

    SiliaBond® Pyridinium Dichromate (Si-PDC) may be used as an alternative to Si-PCC in nucleoside and carbohydrate oxidation, particularly for fragile molecules. SiliaBond PDC can also be used in conjunction with tertbutylhydroperoxide for a variety of oxidative transformations.

  15. SiliaBond® C18 (23%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (23%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (or C18) is the traditional matrix for reversed-phase chromatography. The high loading provides the highest degree of hydrophobicity commercially available. Considered as the least selective phase since it interacts with a wide range of organic molecules.

  16. SiliaBond® C18 nec (23%)

    SiliaBond® C18 nec (23%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (or C18) is the traditional matrix for reversed-phase chromatography. The high loading provides the highest degree of hydrophobicity commercially available. Considered as the least selective phase since it interacts with a wide range of organic molecules. Also used in ion-pairing chromatography (non-endcapped) for the separation of biomolecules.

  17. SiliaBond® C18 (17%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (17%)

    The SiliaBond® C18 17% BDS is the most efficient deactivated C18 reversed-phase. This versatile support is the best choice for your applications in reversed-phase chromatography. This chromatographic phase has been compared with different competitors and presents a better separation for basic compounds.

  18. SiliaBond® C18 (11%)

    SiliaBond® C18 (11%)

    SiliaBond® C18 11% is used as a reversed-phase chromatographic matrix when large hydrophobic molecules are too strongly retained on SiliaBond C18 with higher carbon content.

  19. SiliaBond® C8

    SiliaBond® C8

    SiliaBond® C8 (or C8) is a reversed-phase matrix with a moderate degree of hydrophobicity that works well for separating a wide range of compounds. It can be used instead of C18 when shorter retention times are desired.

  20. SiliaBond® C8 nec

    SiliaBond® C8 nec

    SiliaBond® C8 (or C8) is a reversed-phase matrix with a moderate degree of hydrophobicity that works well for separating a wide range of compounds. It can be used instead of C18 when shorter retention times are desired.

  21. SiliaBond® C4

    SiliaBond® C4

    SiliaBond® C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules.  It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.

  22. SiliaBond® C4 nec

    SiliaBond® C4 nec

    SiliaBond® C4 (or C4) provides less retention towards non-polar compounds than C18 and C8, and is useful in ion-pairing chromatography or to separate large biomolecules.  It works best for molecules with a large hydrophilic region or in case where the hydrophobic region is buried within the structure.

  23. SiliaBond® C1

    SiliaBond® C1

    SiliaBond® C1 (or C1) has the lowest degree of hydrophobicity of all reversed stationary phases, useful in the separation of large biomolecules that have extensive hydrophobic regions.

  24. SiliaBond® Phenyl

    SiliaBond® Phenyl

    SiliaBond® Phenyl (Si-PHE) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has similar retention than C8 but with different selectivity especially for molecules containing aromatics and fatty acids.

  25. SiliaBond® Phenyl nec

    SiliaBond® Phenyl nec

    SiliaBond® Phenyl (Si-PHE) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has similar retention than C8 but with different selectivity especially for molecules containing aromatics and fatty acids.

  26. SiliaBond® Diol

    SiliaBond® Diol

    SiliaBond Diol may also be used as polar sorbent in normal phase and aqueous size exclustion chromatography. Like bare silica, SiliaBond Diol has the ability to form hydrogen bonds and the capacity to separate structural isomers. Since most of its surface is covered with organic functions, the SiliaBond Diol absorbs less water, which leads to a more reproducible activity. It is also the sorbent of choice when working in normal phase in the presence of water.

  27. SiliaBond® Glycidoxy

    SiliaBond® Glycidoxy

    SiliaBond® Glycidoxy (Si-GLY) may be used as a linker for further modification of the surface and for the immobilization of molecules bearing amino, hydroxy, mercapto and thiocarboxylic acid groups.

  28. SiliaBond® Cyano

    SiliaBond® Cyano

    SiliaBond® Cyano (Si-CN) can be used both in normal and reversed-phase chromatography as its polarity marks the separation between the polar and non-polar phases. SiliaBond Cyano is the least retentive polar sorbent in normal phase chromatography and the least retentive of the non-polar sorbents in reversed-phase chromatography.

  29. SiliaBond® Cyano nec

    SiliaBond® Cyano nec

    SiliaBond® Cyano (Si-CN) can be used both in normal and reversed-phase chromatography as its polarity marks the separation between the polar and non-polar phases. SiliaBond Cyano is the least retentive polar sorbent in normal phase chromatography and the least retentive of the non-polar sorbents in reversed-phase chromatography.

  30. SiliaBond® Diphenylphosphine

    SiliaBond® Diphenylphosphine

    SiliaBond® Diphenylphosphine (Si-DPP) can be used as linker for catalyst immobilization such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) for Suzuki coupling.
  31. SiliaBond® Pyridine

    SiliaBond® Pyridine

    SiliaBond Pyridine (Si-PYR) can be used as a tertiary amine for acid removal. It can also anchor Cu2+ ions and then be used as a catalyst for hydroquinone oxidation.

  32. SiliaBond® Tosyl Chloride

    SiliaBond® Tosyl Chloride

    SiliaBond® Tosyl Chloride (Si-TsCl) readily reacts with nucleophiles such as amines and alcohols. Reaction with alcohols yields the bound tosylate, which can then be used to synthesize amines and oxazolines.

  33. SiliaBond® Dimethylamine

    SiliaBond® Dimethylamine

    SiliaBond® Dimethylamine is a silica bound tertiary amine base that can be used in most applications requiring a tertiary amine, particularly as a HCl sponge. Silica bound ammonium salt by-products are easily separated by filtration. This dimethylamine immobilized on silica gel can be used as a base catalyst in Michael or Knoevenagel reactions.

  34. SiliaBond® Isocyanate

    SiliaBond® Isocyanate

    SiliaBond® Isocyanate (Si-ISO) is a versatile scavenger for nucleophiles. It readily scavenges amines, thiols, thiolates, alkoxides, and acidic phenols. Loading is determined by the removal of benzylamine in hexane at room temperature.

  35. SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2)

    SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SCX-2)

    Supported sulfonic acids such as SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SiliaBond SCX-2) are in a class of strong acids widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Their applications are well known and are used in a large number of settings going from drug discovery laboratories up to manufacturing processes. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. Meanwhile, the most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine “Catch and Release” purification technique in SPE cartridges.

  36. SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2)

    SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid nec (SCX-2)

    Supported sulfonic acids such as SiliaBond® Propylsulfonic Acid (SiliaBond SCX-2) are in a class of strong acids widely used in different fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Their applications are well known and are used in a large number of settings going from drug discovery laboratories up to manufacturing processes. Among these applications, we denote their uses as acid catalysts, stationary phases for ion chromatography and basic impurity scavengers. Meanwhile, the most common use is probably as a strong cation exchanger (SCX) for the amine “Catch and Release” purification technique in SPE cartridges.

  37. SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine nec

    SiliaBond® Amine (Si-NH2) is an effective scavenger of acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates and other electrophiles. Si-NH2 has been shown to be effective metal scavenger and catalyst for Knoevenagel reactions. SiliaBond Amine is also used in chromatography as normal phase sorbent.

  38. SiliaBond® Dichlorotriazine (DCT)

    SiliaBond® Dichlorotriazine (DCT)

    Amide bond formation is certainly among the most common chemical transformation in organic synthesis. This explains the diversity of possible reaction pathways and reagents available on the market. SiliCycle is part of this trend and this is why we have developed the bound equivalent of 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine(cyanuric chloride), SiliaBond® Dichlorotriazine (Si-DCT).

  39. SiliaBond® Allyl

    SiliaBond® Allyl

    SiliaBond® Allyl (Si-Allyl) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.


  40. SiliaBond® Bromophenyl

    SiliaBond® Bromophenyl

    SiliaBond® Bromophenyl (Si-BRP) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.


  41. SiliaBond® Propyl Bromide

    SiliaBond® Propyl Bromide

    SiliaBond® Propyl Bromide (Si-PBR) is a versatile solid support for amines and alcohols. It is more reactive than the chloride towards displacement.


  42. SiliaBond® Phenylmethylchloride

    SiliaBond® Phenylmethylchloride

    SiliaBond® Phenylmethylchloride (Si-PMC) can be used as solid support for further derivatization.


  43. SiliaBond® Piperazine

    SiliaBond® Piperazine

    SiliaBond® Piperazine (Si-PPZ) is a useful deprotecting and scavenging agent for Fmoc1 and Bsmoc2 amino protecting groups and as a solid-phase Knoevenagel catalyst. According to the results of a study1, Si-PPZ is superior to its polystyrene-based equivalent. SiliaBond Piperazine may also be used to scavenge electrophiles.


  44. SiliaBond® Tosic Acid nec (SCX)

    SiliaBond® Tosic Acid nec (SCX)

    SiliaBond® Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions.Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.


  45. SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SCX) metal scavenger

    SiliaBond® Tosic Acid (SCX)

    SiliaBond Tosic Acid (SiliaBond SCX, Si-TsOH) is a versatile bound strong acid with a pka <<1. It is widely used for the scavenging of amines and other basic functionalities, including weakly basic anilines, borohydrides, and metals such as Ni and Ag. It can also be used as an acid catalyst for organic reactions. Si-TsOH can serve as an alternative method to quench reactions instead of aqueous or organic soluble acids.
  46. SiliaBond® Tosyl Hydrazine

    SiliaBond® Tosyl Hydrazine

    SiliaBond® Tosyl Hydrazine (Si-TsNHNH2) is an effective scavenger of carbonyl compounds. It has been used to selectively remove aldehydes in the presence of ketones since the scavenging of ketones requires an acid catalyst. Once bound, sulfonyl hydrazones can be utilized in other synthetic transformations.

  47. SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (Si-CYH) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has a different selectivity than the alkyl sorbents (C18, C8, C4, …) and phenyl, and may be used when these fail to provide the desired selectivity.

    SiliaBond® Cyclohexyl

    SiliaBond Cyclohexyl (Si-CYH) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has a different selectivity than the alkyl sorbents (C18, C8, C4, ...) and phenyl, and may be used when these fail to provide the desired selectivity.
  48. SiliaBond® Tridecafluoro

    SiliaBond® Tridecafluoro

    SiliaBond® Tridecafluoro (Si-TDF) is a sorbent primarily used to separate fluorinated molecules. It can also be used in fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE) of fluorous-tag compounds as reported for the synthesis of oligosaccharide.


  49. SiliaBond® Fluorochrom

    SiliaBond® Fluorochrom

    SiliaBond® Fluorochrom (Si-FCM) is a fluorinated sorbent particularly useful for the separation of fluorine containing molecules from non-fluorous ones. The applications of these types of sorbent are not limited to fluorous compounds but may also be used in chromatographic separation of non-fluorinated molecules, just like a regular reversed-phase would do, but with different selectivity. SiliaBond Fluorochrom presents the highest level of fluorine available and has a proprietary structure.


  50. SiliaBond® TBA Chloride

    SiliaBond® TBA Chloride

    SiliaBond® TBA Chloride (Si-TBACl) may be used in the same way as SiliaBond TMA Chloride. Si-TBACl is more sterically indered, which offers a different selectivity than other anion exchangers.

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